18

The caps are not perfectly smooth - they contain nucleation points, imperfections or dirt along the surface, where a bubble could form (similar to how boils are formed at nucleation points when heating water). As the cold water heats up, dissolved gasses are forced out of solution. Some of this gas dissipates, but some of it will attach to the nucleation ...


11

Yeast work better at warmer temps, and at this point you want the yeast to ferment the priming and carb your beer. That means you should keep the beer around 70-75°F (21-24°C) while you're trying to carb it. Once it's carbed, putting it in the fridge will not only aid the dissolution of CO2 into the beer, but will also retard staling. At this point, your ...


9

One of three things: Incomplete fermentation prior to bottling... If the beer wasn't completely done before bottling residual sugar (plus priming sugar) is over carbonating the beer. Too much priming sugar. Re-examine how much you used. Consider that if the beer was significantly cool prior to bottling that a fair amount of CO2 would have been already ...


9

Overview You carbonate partially filled bottles as if the bottle were full of beer, so if you have 1 liter of beer in a 3 liter bottle, you carbonate as if you had 3 liters of beer. Here's why. The amount of carbonation is measured by the equivalent volumes of CO2 dissolved in the beer. So a beer carbonated to 2.5 vols, has 2.5 times the volume of CO2 ...


9

You will need to add the right amount of priming sugar to carbonate the beer in the bottles. There are lots of online priming sugar calculators. In theory, you could bottle the beer before fermentation had completed, and let the remaining sugars carbonate the beer, but this would be very hard to do right. If you bottle with too much residual sugar, your ...


9

Beers do tend to age and have a sweet spot, per se, of when their flavor peaks. Every beer and beer style is different without a doubt. But what you are describing is more related to your experience level. When beers starts to "decline" they don't normally start to pick up strength. In fact, when the beer went into the bottle it should have been done ...


8

You will need to add priming sugar if the beer has reached its terminal gravity with the yeast being used. In this example, despite the 80% attenuation the remaining 20% is not usually fermentable sugars. Its comprised of protein, dextrans and other molecules in solution that are largely ignored by your primary yeast strain. Lastly, reported attenuation ...


8

The yeast is dormant, not likely dead. Leave them in a warm place for a couple weeks or so and they should be fine.


8

Hopefully I can add something here, making the answer non-duplicate. In regards to 'need to add sugar', it is much better to let the yeast ferment everything that they can in the beer, and then add a measured amount of additional sugar. The other choice is to try to predict where the yeast will actually stop, which requires accurate measurement of sugars, ...


7

What you're not accounting for is the CO2 produced during fermentation. The colder the beer ferments, the more CO2 will be in solution in it. That kinda gives you a "head start" on carbonation. If you don't account for the CO2 retained, your beer can be either over or under carbonated.


7

If bottle-conditioning is completely finished, there's no reason it won't be ready to drink as soon as it's cold, if you're only considering carbonation. The amount of CO2 in solution is indeed determined by temperature and pressure, but since we're talking about a closed system, the total amount of CO2 inside the bottle can't change once it's there, it can ...


7

You'll never remove the sediment at the bottom when bottle conditioning. 5-6mm is not a terribly large amount of sediment either. Here are a few methods that can reduce the sediment: Use a secondary fermentor, typically a 5-gallon carboy. This is used after primary fermentation, and has little to do with fermentation despite the name. It removes the beer ...


6

This is possible, but not in a scientifically measurable way. Try this: Hold one of your bottles of beer up to the light so you can see the air gap that expands from the top of the bottle down to the top of the beer in the bottle. Quickly turn the bottle upside down then back again, with a slight amount of force, but no need to shake it. Observe the air ...


6

The yeast settling out of the beer over time is a big help in clarifying the beer. If you leave them sitting on their side the yeast will settle there such that when you upright them in your fridge the some of the yeast will re-suspend and the beer will be cloudy. This adds a yeasty taste and also acts like a laxative. If you must store horizontally it ...


6

You're going to be attempting a fine line of enough yeast to consume sugars to properly carbonate the beer versus reducing sediment in the bottle. The sediment you're seeing could be a variety of things generally there are a few best practices. Limit trub and other particulate from the boil that makes it into the fermenter. Limiting trub Limit ...


6

I use the same amount of priming sugar, in the batch, and I use a mix of bottles. 12oz and 32oz. and they carbonate the same. if you are adding sugar to individual bottles, then the amount would be different. so the answer is Yes, for priming the batch, No if you add to each bottle.


6

According to this calculator, adding 1.4oz of sugar to 2gal at 35°F is equivalent to adding 5.4oz at 68°F. At 35°F the disolved CO2 is around 1.61vol whereas at 68°F it is 0.86vol. In your case the CO2 level should be around 2.9vol after carbonation at 68°F, it is very fizzy for a regular Ale (see carbonation guidelines ), but it should be fine and not ...


5

Yes, there is a potential risk of bottle bombs, as with any incomplete ferment. The residual fermentables can be fermented by the remaining yeast in the bottle along with the priming sugar and produce more CO2 than intended. Ideally you should cold crash only after you are sure primary is complete. Many brewers simply leave the beer in primary for at least 2 ...


5

In your case, I believe you are asking whether you can bottle without adding anything and expect the beer to carbonate based on residual sugar -- on that point, yes, you do need to add some sort of fermentable substance for the yeast to produce the CO2 for in-bottle carbonation. But for the record, if we read your question literally, then no -- there are ...


5

Different yeast strains can look a little different in the bottle as well. One characteristic of yeast is how well it "compacts" at the bottom of the fermentor or bottle. Some strains, like English Ale yeasts, are known for creating a very tight, compacted sediment, whereas others leave the yeast cake much more "fluffy". And yes, the yeast caked that you ...


5

Generally speaking, the amount of time for proper conditioning after completion of primary fermentation increases with the OG of the post-boil wort. It can also be dependent on beer style and personal taste. A low gravity (1.040's) ale can be ready in 2 weeks. A high gravity russian imperial stout can sometimes take 6 months to develop the flavors desired ...


5

Yep. Just keep it away from sun light. I do this all winter without problems.


5

Give it some time. I had a stout take about a month before there was a decent head.


5

Force carbonation is very common for homebrewers. I'd imagine any homebrewer with a kegging setup does force carbonation by default. I would guess, too, that it's much more often than not done without active filtering. Long primary, cold-crashing and careful racking will minimize the amount of yeast transfer for most styles and beers. There is no signficant ...


5

Most of the equipment is not really necessary. It may just make it much easier. When you use a bottling bucket, you rack from fermenter to bottling bucket, leaving a layer of dead yeast cells and sediment behind, which makes for clearer beer. This is especially important when dry hopping or adding fruit. With a bottling bucket you won't disturb all that ...


5

IMHO PET bottles will keep beer very well for up to 6 months. Beer can be kept longer than that but I have noticed that "fizzy drinks" PET bottles can lose pressure after a year or so. Apparently the PET used is very slightly gas permeable. There are bottles on the market with an O2 barrier inserted in the bottle walls, eg - Coopers brown plastic bottles. ...


5

It's fairly safe to say that bottle conditioning at -5°c will not yield good results. Even high ABV beers stored below freezing will form ice crystals and force a separation of the water and ethanol. (Eisbock) While many yeasts can survive freezing temperatures the become dormant or have their metabolism slowed down so much they no longer perform useful ...


5

Bottle conditioning, not to be confused with bottle aging, is only for natural carbonation. You want to use a monosaccharide sugar like powdered corn sugar so it's easily and completely consumed by the yeast. Using DME, honey or anything more complex will leave unfermentable sugars and other compounds in the beer, resulting in flavor and mouthfeel changes....


5

"Rafts" or anything floating at this stage sounds infected. If you had good fermentation it's unlikely it will be harmful to sample. Open one, see if you can recover the floaty. If its white / creamy color. I would sample taste the beer. If it's blue / black. Dump em.


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