The recommended cell count for ales is 0.75 to 1 million cells per milliliter per degree plato (ca. 4 gravity points.)
For 5 gallons (~18.9L) of typical strength beer of 1.048, that's about 12 plato, so you'll need
1 million x 18900 x 12 = 226.8 billion cells.
According to wyeast, the smackpack contains at least 100 billion cells, which is half of what is ...
weigh your priming sugar, don't measure the volume
boil it in just enough water to dissolve it for a few minutes
pour that sugar syrup into your bottling bucket
rack the beer onto the sugar mixture
give it a couple gentle stirs with a sanitized spoon
That works for me. Hopefully it will work for you, too!
Ideally when using irish moss, very little of it should end up in the fermentor. It's a good idea to let the boil settle for 10-15 minutes after flameout so that the moss and the proteins it's attracted have time to fall to the bottom of the kettle.
But even if it does make it to the fermentor, it won't have any significant affect on the yeast:
The irish ...
It really depends on what you're after. Traditionally, dried bitter orange peel is added late in the boil for bitterness. Dried or fresh sweet orange peel can be added late in the boil for a bit of flavor, and fresh sweet orange peel can be added to the secondary for aroma. So, you need to think about and define what it is you want the orange peel to do ...
BYO has a pretty good, brief article on what yeast nutrient provides for your beer, as well as whether or not it's necessary. To summarize for you, wort by itself is pretty rich in nutrient, and may not need yeast nutrient, especially if you re-pitch yeast from a previous batch (proper amounts of slurry, of course). The one nutrient that is not present in ...
An individual yeast cell is either dead or alive. A packet of yeast will have millions to billions of cells though. Some percentage of that will be alive, and the remaining percentage will be dead. The older the packet, and the worse the storage conditions, the higher the percentage of dead yeast.
Depends on the brand of kit. Some kits use no-name yeast, for ...
No way. You will kill everything in your beer at this temperature. The pasteurization process actually uses lower temps, probably with less exposure time, and kills them all.
And its ok to use any beer yeast to carbonation, you don't need the same strain.
This can work very nicely from my experience, I often use S-04 and US-05. The S-04 gives esters as you suspect and the US-05 gives a higher attenuation and a thinner body.
The majority of esters are generated during the first 3 days of fermentation and the major difference of a high attenuation yeast will not really be apparent until the later than this ...
I advise looking at HotHead from Omega Labs: http://www.omegayeast.com/portfolio/14158-2/
Temperature Range: 62-98° F (16-37° C)
Alcohol Tolerance: 11% ABV
I am calling bullshit on the first article. Does this make any sense to you?
"Brewer's yeast is used to brew homemade wines and beers, while baker's yeast makes bread rise. You can't brew alcohol with baker's yeast and you can't leaven bread with brewer's yeast"
This is completely wrong. They are both are saccharomyces cerevisiae and do essentially the ...
Yes, keep it in the fridge if you don't plan to use it in the next 24 hours. There are two reasons:
The lower temperature will reduce yeast activity, reducing the buildup of more CO2.
The lower temperature will reduce the pressure of the gas already in the pack.
As well as these reasons, Wyeast recommend you store the pack (swollen or not) in the fridge to ...
Danstar BRY-97 is a great option for American-style IPAs. It starts out kind of rough, but if you give it enough time to condition, it makes an amazing beer.
Fermentis Safale US-05 and Danstar Nottingham also a popular choices for American-style IPAs. You should ferment them at the low end of their temperature ranges.
For English-style IPAs, you can use ...
You will need to add priming sugar if the beer has reached its terminal gravity with the yeast being used.
In this example, despite the 80% attenuation the remaining 20% is not usually fermentable sugars. Its comprised of protein, dextrans and other molecules in solution that are largely ignored by your primary yeast strain.
Lastly, reported attenuation ...
we can get away with re-using yeast, because Mutation isn't instantaneous, it take multiple generations to change a whole batches properties. Also bigger brewers use a "mother culture" to grow more yeast, like making a starters from the same beginning yeast over and over.
In my own experience, i have used the same yeast batch for 3-4 times with no changes ...
How did Monks and farmers do it? Farmers in Norway apparently do it with even less fanfare. http://www.garshol.priv.no/blog/342.html
Terje took some wort in a plastic bucket. Then he brought out a plastic box of pale gray flakes. This was the kveik, which Terje got from a friend in Hornindal twenty years ago, and has been using since. Terje collects the ...
A short starter is fine. I often have starters that begin stirring when I start the brewday, so they're only going for 8-10 hours max. With appropriate handling, the risk of contamination can be mitigated and reduced to be negligible.
Due to the small amount of wort, lag time with a vial of yeast is at most a couple of hours (assuming a fresh vial.) Yeast ...
Keep it in for as long as there's a large krausen (the foam on top of the beer.) You can then choose to remove it and replace with an airlock or you can leave in until the end of fermentation and you're ready to rack. If you do remove it and replace with an airlock, there is potentially a risk of contamination, but not much if you sanitize all the airlock ...
Wyeast 1968 is not a high attenuator to begin with - 67-71%, and has a temperature range of 64-72F (source).
I think your temperature of 62F is the main culprit, especially if it's fluctuating, although there are other factors that contribute to the low attenuation. There are several changes you might consider next time:
since you're using an English ...
There are a number of objective, quantifiable differences between yeast strains.
Temperature range. Beer yeasts are roughly categorized into lager and ale strains. All lager strains work best at low (~500 F.) temperatures, while ale strains work best closer to room temperature (~680 F.). But within either of these categories, different yeasts have different ...
The primary benefit of a starter is having the proper number of healthy yeast cells to ferment your wort.
By "proper number", we mean about 0.75 million cells per milliliter per degree Plato of wort for ales, and 1.5 million cells/mL/P for lagers. (Consider that smack packs and vials have about 100bn cells when fresh, which is only enough cells for 5gl/19L ...
Yes (sort of... You can't just warm the bottle up and chuck it in there... It's a little more complicated than that...) but you will need to buy a good quality, bottle conditioned beer (look for sediment in the bottom of the bottle, or the words "bottle conditioned" on the label... Or ask your beer shop...)
Basically, most commercial brewers (particularly ...
I can't imagine anyone suggesting bottling at a FG of 1.042
I would return them to the fermenter and allow fermintation to complete.
Those are bottle bombs. Be careful.
Many yeasts don't survive at 6.5% ABV, but there are plenty that do. Wine yeasts for example.
At 1.042 we would call that a stalled or stuck fermentation, and a more tolerant yeast can be ...
According to info I got from John Palmer for an upcoming article I wrote for BYO magazine, the cleanup happens concurrently with fermentation. Here's the quote..."Yeast have 3 phases in their life cycle: Adaptation, High Growth, and Stationary. (See Yeast by CW and Jamil) They do not have a maturation phase where they clean up byproducts. Adaptation phase ...
Interestingly, I found a presentation by Thomas H. Shellhammer, professor of fermentation science at OSU, that shows the composition of a typical hop cone:
Cellulose and Lignin: 40-50%
Alpha Acids: 2-15%
Beta Acids: 2-10%
Polyphenols and Tannins: 3-6%
Lipids and Fatty Acids: 1-5%
Hop Oil: 0.5-3%
No, you don't have a problem. Yeast does not die that fast. You can still use the rehydrated yeast, it will get active back again when you pitch it in your wort. If you did not cover it, then just hope that nothing else gets in your wort also.
This is caused by a drop in temp before co2 is being produced. Just cap the fermenter in sanitized foil until you're past the lag phase, or cooled to fermentaion temp. Though a little bit of starsan won't hurt much, foil is better than an open airlock IMO.
I don't put air locks on until the wort is at fermentaion temp. I also remove the airlock then foil ...
Yeast follow the laws of natural selection.
As a cell is budding the new mass may have some minor defects / mutations. If those changes give the yeast an advantage to survive it will get passed on.
You can have noted changes in just a few generations.
I've observed in my own washing methods strains becoming less flocculant just because my washing method ...
The bottom layer contains more trub, but does also contain yeast. The top layer is formed after the majority of the trub has already settled, so it's more or less pure yeast on top.
You don't have too much - actually the opposite. It's best to make a starter - even though it looks like a lot of yeast, it will be vastly underpitched in a 5 gallon brew.
Yes, I have saved tons of money by growing my own yeast. It just takes a little planning and time. Slants or glycol storage are going to be your best bet. Get a pressure cooker to acts as a makeshift auto-clave for sterilization. With some yeasts coming in at $6-$9 a vial, this will help you get the most out of that money. In fact I have pulled proprietary ...
Don't worry have a homebrew.
It is very unlikely that a temperature change from 80-72 would shock the yeast. People like to ferment at lower temperatures because it produces less byproducts that add off flavors to beer. Additionally, 6 hours for the temperature change is definitely not a quick temperature change in the time scale of yeast.
Agreed only a ...