I recommend reading just enough to learn to brew your first few batches instead of trying to take in all the information at once. And as questions come up while brewing, write them down and devote a great deal of time to researching and answering those questions. As you progress into brewing the application of that knowledge will lead to more questions as ...
John Palmer's book "How to Brew" is an excellent place to start and earlier versions are on line for free. It covers all the bases of brewing with quite a bit of technical information. I use this book as a reference tool all the time. If you want to get into the nuts and bolts of the individual components of brewing try the Brewing Element Series from ...
The Everything Hard Cider Book by Drew Beechum covers some history, taste attributes of different apples, how to taste cider, and how to adjust it to your taste. It covers some things that can go wrong and how to fix them. It contains many different recipes.
In the UK and US there is a wide range of options available to you depending on your budget. (I know you are in the US midwest, but I will try keep this as widely relevant as I can).
As previously mentioned, UC Davis has an excellent degree program and has a huge number of resources online; also the Siebel Institute in Chicago, IL is highly respected.
In the ...
They have great resources on studying to be a BJCP. While 90% on how to judge beers and to know styles and beer defects, having this as a base knowedge will help tremendously in brewing education.
"The New Cider Maker's Handbook" by Claude Jolicoeur is a very in depth book covering everything from orchards, mills, and presses, to a profile on varietals and an extensive look at the fermentation process. I highly recommend it.
As mentioned, How to Brew by John Palmer is a great book that teaches you the basics, but also allows you to dig into some of the details & more technical aspects of brewing.
But don't just read. Listen to The Jamil Show, Brew Strong, Basic Brewing Radio podcasts. They provide a wealth of information.