If you happen to be out of priming sugar, but really want to bottle your beer, what are the alternatives? Let's assume a 5 gallon batch that's fully fermented - call it 1.010-1.014.
I'd be cautious of using corn syrup, it usually has salt and sometimes vanilla flavoring in it in addition to the actual corn sugar syrup.
Go with regular table sugar (sucrose), or malt extract if you have some to spare. KOTMF has got a handy calculator to help you determine how much you should use: http://kotmf.com/tools/prime.php
Old school method is to kräusen it. You would add a portion of actively fermenting beer to your priming bucket. You can also do this with plain wort, but the fresh and healthy yeast in actively fermenting beer has a few benefits... clean up diacetyl, acetylaldehyde, and other fermentation by-products.
Here's a formula for how much gyle to add: priming with gyle formula
Here's a calculator for how much gyle to add: priming with gyle calculator
The next best option is DME. You can use table sugar, some say it will give a "cider" flavor, others argue that point. Honey works but is slow. Pretty much any fermentable will work, some more slowly than others.
I know what comat0se describes as kräusen as using Speise (literally, food). As a rule of thumb use 10% (for lagers) to 15% (for ales) of the wort as Speise. You need less for lagers cause they usually ferment cooler and at lower temperatures there is more CO2 in the beer.
I wrote a whole blog post on this topic a while back: Alternate Priming Sugars.
I discuss honey, DME, brown sugar, etc, even fruit juice. Adds a nice extra dimension to some beers. If you're just looking to carb up your beer and you're out of corn sugar, you can't go wrong with plain old table sugar though.
I have used Table Suger, Suger Cubes, and Corn Suger with no ill effects in my priming of my beers to this point.