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6

Almost certainly the starter yeast is yeast slurry that's been stored frozen in liquid nitrogen. Interestingly, one of the most common methods is to store it inside sealed-off portions of plastic drinking straws. Commercial yeast labs have large collections (sometimes called libraries) of pure cultures of different strains of yeast stored this way (pure ...


4

That beer definitely needs more time. It's likely that the periods of lower temperature slowed or potentially even halted fermentation, and the sweet smell you describe is probably unfermented sugars in the wort. You just need to warm that brew up a bit (19°C as you've said there is perfect) and wait another couple of days at least. At best, bottling now ...


4

If you have "spritz", which is carbon dioxide gas, then you have fermentation. No need for concern. Ginger beer often will not have the yeast krausen layer on top, the yeast remains suspended within the beer itself until it is finished and then will settle out. All you need now is patience. Just leave it alone. All is well. Cheers, good luck, ...


4

We did a "Farmhouse IPA" a year or so ago with Omega's Voss Kveik yeast and fermented it at 90°F. I was pleasantly surprised with how clean it was. It had the expected citrus-y notes, and paired nicely with 3+ lbs. per barrel of dry-hopping, too (Simcoe, Citra, Galaxy). "IPAish enough" is clearly a subjective term. If you're looking for ...


4

Last Australian summer I did a few brews with Lallemand brand Kveik dry yeast at ambient temperatures around 26degC (79degF); actual fermentation got to between 28-29degC (82-84degF) according to my laser thermometer. The results were excellent. Clean tasting beer and no off flavours whatsoever. Kveik is described as a neutral yeast, and my results support ...


4

I used Omega Lutra Kveik on a Bells THA clone last month and it turned out great. There is usually this slippery mouthfeel with the US-05 which wasn't there with the Lutra. I couldn't believe how clean the beer was when transferring. Be prepared for a blow off tube though. Fermentation was done at room temp which varied 72F to 75F. (update) I had a couple ...


3

As @skvery suggested, backsweeten it to make it sweeter. Mead is quite devoid of nutrients (as honey is basically straight fructose) so a strong yeast bred specifically for mead / low nutrient fermentations will outperform an ale yeast and not become as stressed. Due to the strong yeast, more of the sugar will be converted to alcohol which is why ...


3

At the high end (81F) plus an additional couple of degrees generated by the yeast there isn't much except Kveik that would make decent beer. At the lower end, there are some Ale-strains that would produce okay beer, I suspect that you will have better results by finding a cooler room - or try to investigate some cooling hacks (wet wrapping + fan, or ...


3

The Campden probably will not kill your yeast, but will only make the yeast upset, causing them to increase sulfur production and make them more sluggish, but things will stabilize again after a week or so. I believe everything will still turn out alright. If you are concerned, then add extra yeast. However I don't believe this will be necessary. Good ...


3

Brettanomyces will make acetic acid in the presence of ethanol and oxygen. You'd need to determine if there is actually acetobacter present in the harvested slurry to know for sure if it was "clean". It is possible you picked up too much oxygen on transfer or had too much headspace in secondary.


3

To eliminate any risk at all, you could discard the harvested yeast. I agree with you, that most likely the acetobacter came from the raspberries. However, it's possible also that it simply flew in from the air or otherwise was incorporated as part of the racking to secondary. So there's no way to know for sure really.


3

At this point, I have made many one gallon batches of beer, cider and mead using S.Boulardii as my yeast. Cider is by far the easiest. Simply empty a capsule of Florastor or Boulardii Max into a jug of preservative free pure apple juice then stick on your air-lock. If you really want to be cheap and not get a bubbler, you can just put some aluminum foil over ...


2

I have just revived a liquid yeast that was in the fridge for 2.5 years, I cleaned it up, did a starter and its like new.. I took some microscope samples and didn't see any bacteria infection or mutations and even made a little fun video on it, for anyone interested... co2 gas bubble moving under the slide, live sample from active fermentation


2

First, not all kraüsens stay fluffy during the whole fermentation. There are high and low kraüsens, long lasting and short lived kraüsens. You can't use them as a measure for your fermentation. Second, I know the BE-256, it is indeed a rather powerful yeast. However, you should give it the normal fermentation time. Sometimes a fast initial fermentation is ...


2

No. You didn't kill your cider, this description sounds like a perfectly normal fermentation. Generally a yeast fermentation is vigorous in the first 1~7 days (typically producing a krausen), this phase is known by the term "primary fermentation". The time taken can be significantly different depending on temperature, sugar-concentration, amount of yeast, ...


2

While I'm not entirely sure what you're proposing is true (see below), here are some points to consider which potentially support your claim: Saccharomyces bayanus has an active fructose uptake system, while S. cerevisiae relies on 'facilitated diffusion' to uptake fructose. Meaning? S. bayanus actually expends cellular energy to bring fructose into the ...


2

The generally specified amount is about 1/3 of a cup of yeast slurry into a 20 litre/5 gallon batch - so maybe 25ml, more?. This is all very rough, because you can never be sure of the concentration or viability of the yeast without putting it under a microscope. It's difficult to pitch too much yeast at the home brew level though, so I'd err on the side ...


2

tl;dr: NO. Forget it. Ain't never no gonna work. Not for cider, not for beer, not for nuffin'. Explanation: Brewer's yeast sold as (part of any) nutritional supplement is usually spent yeast that has been sold off by one brewery or another to a food products manufacturer. It has been processed into a food supplement and as part of that process it has ...


2

Not particularly worrying. If temperature is under control and yeast amount is right, then head space as others say - as well as using a blow-off tube rather than a traditional air lock.


2

Refractometers don't measure Brix accurately when alcohol is present. You're better off using a hydrometer if you really want to know when sugar is half gone, then it's just when gravity points are half of what you started with, e.g., when 1.100 becomes 1.050, approximately. That being said, their procedure isn't critical. Many people would just give it a ...


2

Either way should be fine. Although I'd probably pitch the yeast before moving it just to avoid having to have another thing to do after moving it. 2 hours probably isn't enough for it to start fermenting vigorously enough to even pop a plugged bung out so it won't cause problems as long as it's secured in your car. Just think of it as really good ...


2

Leaving grape juice open to the air will usually inoculate it naturally with wild yeasts, but this is a hit-or-miss sort of thing. You may have a beneficial fermentation, or a bad one. Worse, you have a high risk of bacterial infections or mold. Bread yeast (S. Cerevisiae) is not well suited for wine fermentations; it struggles with the pH of the must (wine ...


2

I think your fermentation time (7 days primary, 14 days secondary) is a good enough timeline. When you say "American Ale Yeast", do you mean dry yeast safale-05 (the red packet)? My guess is the issue is high fermentation temperatures and/or yeast health. I know it's difficult to keep temps in check if the carboy is just in a closet or something. ...


2

I would take a gravity reading and taste it! it looks like it fermented well, did it come out of the top? if you had the white cap on it then that is definitely OK. CO2 is heavier than air, so would have protected the beer, and your white cap would have stopped bigger bogies from getting in. but all in the taste, right?


1

Bread yeast are normally cultured to stop fermenting at far below 5 %, not enough to get beer or wine dry. I would rather add a single raisin or culture a strong starter, starting with a minced raisin in a slightly acidic environment - such as 25 mL water and 25 mL fresh pineapple juice. I will then feed using 50 mL starter and 50 mL wort/juice until it ...


1

Yes, if you are using wine yeast it is common for a ferment to finish in a week. I've had commercial sized batches of grapes (multiple tons) finish in 7 days depending on how hot it is and the type of yeast. The sulfur smell may or may not dissipate with time. I would rack off the yeast soon as that can sometimes contribute to hydrogen sulfide production.


1

If you have a kraüsen of 8cm thick, then your yeast is certainly in good health. I have also hydrated yeast sometimes even 24 hrs beforehand. 5 hours is not a problem, I would surmise that the yeast is in or just behind the lag phase. I suppose that in this case the low temperature might be the cause. You pitched at 22° C, which made the yeast active. But ...


1

Great question. There should be enough yeast still present to carbonate your bottles. If you want to be sure, it wouldn't be wrong just to add about 1 gram of fresh yeast before bottling. You don't need a whole pack, just a tiny amount. But this is optional. I'll bet if you don't add any more yeast it will still carbonate just fine.


1

My answer to your 3 questions is YES. 1- It is a bit early to drink. Give it at least 2 more weeks. 2- Give it some time to sediment and rack. Usually first racking is at the end of fermentation. 3- A fining agent will help to get rid of the remaining yeast in suspension. I can also suggest filtering if fining is not an option. All this will help.


1

When using bread yeast, wine will have more yeasty taste than when prepared with wine yeast. How much yeast did you put in? 2 weeks isn't too early if you're bothered about it's taste only. Did it give you any kick? You can buy a hydrometer to check alcohol production. Fining agent might help a bit, you can use bentonite powder.


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