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18

The caps are not perfectly smooth - they contain nucleation points, imperfections or dirt along the surface, where a bubble could form (similar to how boils are formed at nucleation points when heating water). As the cold water heats up, dissolved gasses are forced out of solution. Some of this gas dissipates, but some of it will attach to the nucleation ...


13

You can safely dilute at any stage. Contamination is probably the biggest risk. But just takes basic sanitation practices to avoid. Oxydation: Really only an issue if 50% or more of the alcohol is present. Just don't splash, use a tube to add water below the wort surface. Diacetyl: It isn't an "infection" it's produced by all yeast during growth phase but ...


10

If you have designed your recipe to account for adding the extra water at the end of the boil, then I see no issues what so ever. I would personally add a couple of litres of boiling water every 10 min or so rather than adding it all at the end, just to avoid over concentrating the sugars in the wort, which may encourage caramelisation & Maillard ...


9

'[W]ater will naturally absorb carbon dioxide from the air' Yes it will. But consider this: at atmospheric pressure and room temperature the solubility of CO2 is roughly 0.7 volumes (~1,400 ppm). Factor in that our atmosphere is currently ~0.04% CO2 and the most CO2 you could absorb from the atmosphere is ~0.6 ppm. This reaction won't happen immediately (or ...


8

I think the factor isn't that you want sterile wort, but sanitized wort. You may not get sterile wort from boiling, but that isn't a problem. The wort is surrounded by barely sanitary air, so it's going to be contaminated to some degree from the get go. The key point is that the massive yeast population (>100bn cells for a 5 gallon batch) scavenge dissolved ...


8

Regarding contamination, if you boil the water you are using to dilute and let it cool in a sanitised pot, then add it you should avoid bacterial or wild yeast contamination. At that OG (1080) don't worry about oxygen, if anything your yeast will need more of it due to the high starting gravity. When I do 1080+ beers, I often open the FV after 24H, to let ...


7

According to the New York City water report (page 20), all you need to do is transfer the water between two vessels 10 times to remove chlorine. I have been using this method for all of my homebrews by filling a 12 quart pot with tap water and transferring back-and-forth between a second 12 quart pot, lifting the pot as I pour as high above my head as I ...


7

There are two potential, but not serious, issues with boiling the volume lower than full: 1. Maillard reactions (not caramelisation) at higher wort gravity tend to be more prominent. Sometimes it's good (e.g. when you boil down first runnings when making dubbel), other times not so good (witbier and other light stuff). 2. Hops tend to be under-utilised in ...


6

I'd brewed dozens of batches before finding out about chloramine and Campden tablets. My beer is better now that I treat my brewing water to remove chloramine, but has always been drinkable. I think the failure of your previous batch was due of something other than chloramine.


6

The core question is … Why? Different ions lead to different perceived properties in the finished beer; for one example: higher concentrations of chloride emphasize malt character, whereas higher concentrations of sulfate emphasize hop character and dryness. When? Both in the mash and in the sparge water, mostly based on the ratio in volume, with some ...


6

When racking from a primary fermenter to a secondary vessel, you will leave behind a non-trivial amount of "stuff" so the volume in the secondary will be less than the volume in the primary. If you start with five gallons in the fermenter you won't have five gallons left to bottle, but it isn't any more concentrated than when you started. If your OG and FG ...


6

There is a distinct difference between chloride, which is a dissolved Cl- ion, and free residual chlorine (or the longer-lasting chloramine ions). The chloride is likely fine. The 61ppm concentration would make your water smell like a pool (or stronger) if it were chlorine. A chlorine residual test must be conducted within 15 minutes of taking the sample. ...


6

As someone noted, chlorine and chloride are two different things. Basically, zero chlorine and chloramine is desirable in your beer. Chlorine can bind with phenols in beer and form chlorophenols, a common homebrew flaw that leads to off-flavors described as medicinal, plastick-y, band-aid-like, or sometimes like electrical smoke. There are many ways to ...


6

Different water profiles can change the taste of your beer. Especially when you brew a beer with - as you say - "nothing [...] complex with tastes". When there is no big hop aroma or lots of alcohol in the beer, the subtle influence of the water shines through. The water chemistry can accent the hop bitterness, and it can also support the malt flavours. ...


6

I add nearly freezing water to chill it quicker to pitch temperature. 1 gallon of near frozen I add to 4 gallons of wort to chill it to lager pitch temperature quicker. Once my immersion chiller cannot reduce the temperature any further, I introduce the near freezing water into my wort. I do not notice any negative effects. The hops are still very nice ...


5

The most important parameter in water is residual alkalinity. It's the thing that determines what kind of beer you can brew and what adjustments you need to make for beer styles that aren't suited to your untreated water. "How to brew" explains how to calculate it, how it is related to beer color and how to correct it.


5

Gypsum does two things: It releases calcium ions into the mash, which combine with phosphates from the grain to create an acid, thus acidifying the mash. It provides sulphate ions which contribute a flavour. It's widely reported that sulphates accentuate hop bitterness and give a slight saltiness to the beer. If you took all your gypsum and added it only ...


5

Totally normal. C02 is SLOWLY pushing the water to the opposite side of the lock. As fermentation starts to really kick in, you'll see much more movement and "bubbling" in the airlock.


5

In principle that's what it means. So you could stop there and use your water as if it were distilled water. If you wanted to be thorough, you'd question the sensitivity of a $15 device. A quick test is to take a quantity of your tap water and progressively dilute it with the 0ppm water, diluting your test sample in half each time (throw half away and ...


5

I start by saving the hottest water in my sink, to be used for cleaning the immersion chiller and other items post-brew. Once I have enough there, I save the water in buckets to be used for watering plants inside and out. Once the wort temperature drops to 120-130 F I switch over to a closed system. I have a small picnic cooler with a submersible pump in it, ...


4

Your brew will definite taste salty with that quantity of minerals added. I would use a third of that amount. 150ppm calcium and 250ppm sulphates is really the upper limit of what you can comfortably use in the beer, and you will still taste a little salt up front, but often it goes with the style. Here are some guidelines from the HBT wiki, Calcium: ...


4

There's no risk of microbial contamination from anything you add before or during the boil. The act of boiling itself will sufficiently purify the water. Water that you add at the end of the boil is a slightly different story. For the majority of people in the majority of circumstances, adding clean and unboiled water is no problem so long as it has been ...


4

I use either lactic or phosphoric acid to reduce pH. You can also use acid malt. I think the absolute best water calculator around is Bru'nwater (https://sites.google.com/site/brunwater/). Its author, Martin Brungard, is a professional water engineer who has done work for many large breweries, including Sierra Nevada. It also has a great section on water ...


4

In short, most early extract recipes work off the concentrated boil process as you have noticed. But if you have the ability to boil AND COOL 5 whole gallons then go for it. Keep in mind one of the main reasons often overlooked for the concentrated boil is to use very cold water or iced water for the other two gallons to get to pitching temps. You could ...


4

I suppose if you have to boil it down (sorry) to a single factor, I'd say the one thing is to ensure the water includes 50ppm of calcium. pH is no use since it may change or not change once you add grains depending upon what other ions are in solution. The water may be devoid of trace elements needed by the yeast, so use yeast nutrient blend to ensure these ...


4

If you add near boiling water to fermenting wort, then yes, you can definitely kill some of the yeast, at least, any yeast that come in contact with that near boiling water. If there was enough yeast in the fermenter, distributed in other parts of the beer, then a lot of it may still be alive. If you see signs of fermentation (bubbling airlock, krausen) it ...


4

Whether or not they're really necessary depends on the water you have and the beer you want to brew. You need to start by getting an analysis of your water. Some water districts provide all the info you need, but many of them don't. If not, an excellent resource is wardlab.com. Get test W-6. As the what the info means and how you need to adjust your ...


4

AJ deLange calculated that 4.7mg/L (~18mg/gl) of potassium metabisulfite (4.0mg/L of sodium metabisulfite) is needed to reduce a "worst case" scenario of 3mg/L of chloramine. (PDF, via the Wayback Machine archive of AJ's site). I've been using this to add K-meta along with my brewing salts. That works out to 188mg for 10gl of brewing liquor. A Campden ...


4

You probably want to get the water tested to ensure it is fit for human consumption. The rain itself should be fine, but the roof surface and storage vessels may not made of food grade/food safe materials. Here is a list of water testing labs from the NZ MoH: http://www.drinkingwater.esr.cri.nz/mohlabs/labsfornzregionalpha.asp?NZRegion=NZNZ01 For Auckland ...


4

Short answer: No. In general, if your water is good to drink, it's good to make beer as well. I also have access to good water and I don't find it makes any difference on my finished product when I use distilled water instead. If your water has too much minerals or wrong pH, you can still use it after you treat and/or filter it.


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