5

This looks like Pediococcus contamination: see here Is this lactobacillus? More information about spoilage here: https://www.craftbrewingbusiness.com/news/four-bacteria-that-will-ruin-your-beer/ Lack of sanitation might have cause this.


3

Best advice is to probably just leave it alone. However, if you really want to get your volume back and have the materials on hand, you could potentially make a mini batch of the beer (thats enough volume to want to hop it) and dump it in. How long has it been since the initial yeast pitch? I'm not sure you'd want to pitch that much wort on a beer that's ...


3

You can rack at any point, just be careful not to over expose your cider to air, to avoid oxidation. There are tips (mostly for wine, but still) for that here: Oxidation of red wine during racking and bottling Personnaly, for my ciders and my wines, I prefer to rack the first time just before the end of fermentation. The main reason is that fermentation ...


3

It is not uncommon to have SG fall that far after about 9 days. Adding extra sugar at any point, at beginning, end, or at this point in between, is a matter of preference. Be aware that the added sugar will continue to ferment to dryness and will simply increase the alcohol, unless you pasteurize or otherwise treat to kill off the yeast early. In my ...


2

Yes, you have a fermentation happening. As you yourself admit, the leakage out of the lid is the reason why the airlock doesn't seem to be working. But not to worry, everything will turn out fine. You underpitched a little bit, but since you saw signs of fermentation within a day, everything should be good anyway. Next time pop the pack earlier and ...


2

Yes it is possible. Barrel fermentation of white wine is a traditional Burgundian technique, it is used (commercially) with Chardonnay for instance. Be careful because white wines are easy to oxidize, so be sure to top up the barrel if need be. Fermenting in oak barrel will add a little color and complexity. You can also conduct a ML fermentation in the ...


1

I think you're simply bothering with this mead way too soon. It was wise to lower the temperature, although I'd shoot for 66/68 ambient, whatever you can do with some consistency is good. I'm operating off the assumption that you're using some strain of wine yeast here. However, I'd give it at least 4-6 weeks before you start pulling readings. Although if ...


1

Let me answer your questions You will need that 2 gallons of head space for foaming. Don't use a six gallon bucket. Air is less of a concern during primary because of the volumes of CO2 produced but once the active fermentation has stopped, you need to be sealed in a carboy that is topped just a couple of inches from the bung. You want as little headspace ...


1

The main problem with leaking buckets and fermenters is that when the fermentation finishes, normal air will start to enter and might start oxidising your beer. This air will mix with the carbon dioxide. How much it might stale and oxidise your beer depends on the size of the leak and the exposure time of course. For the fermentation itself a leaky bucket ...


1

Obligatory Disclaimer I'm not at all experienced with brewing ... but I have some pretty good experience with spawning and cultivating mushrooms. That sure looks like a fungal growth to me. Classic mycelium threads, building into a network. Some Google Images for you that look pretty similar. Google Images : mycelium fungus As with all unknown fungi/...


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