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4

According the Brau Kaiser, it's acidic melanoidins. Melanoidins are composed of sugars and amino acids, and are created through the Maillard reaction.


4

I use either lactic or phosphoric acid to reduce pH. You can also use acid malt. I think the absolute best water calculator around is Bru'nwater (https://sites.google.com/site/brunwater/). Its author, Martin Brungard, is a professional water engineer who has done work for many large breweries, including Sierra Nevada. It also has a great section on water ...


4

Sima is a traditional Finnish drink that is basically hard lemonade... In a large non-reactive pot (stainless steel or ceramic coated, NOT aluminum), boil 3 liters (+ 1 cup to allow for evaporation, spillage ect.) of water with 2-3 cups white sugar, brown sugar, honey or any combo thereof (more sugar = more alcohol). When dissolved, add 2-4 thinly sliced ...


3

Usual practice is to test the source water, then determine what needs to be added. There are two calculators for additions in the form of Excel file, one from John Palmer (howtobrew.com), another from Braukaiser. I prefer the latter one. Testing-wise, I'd say that for homebrewing just water report from your local water provider is enough. Some pet shops and ...


3

There's no way your mash was 3.8 unless you were using highly acidified water to begin with. But you can measure your water pH to be sure. Most water starts alkali and if anything you have to work to bring down the mash pH. The pH mostly affects enzyme activity, and so mash efficiency. There is some minor affect on body, but this is small compared to the ...


3

Keep your water profile basically the same and add acid. You can use many online calculators, but I think its better to deal with it practically. Start your mash and measure pH, then slow add acid a ml or drop wise, remeasuring as you go. Keep track of how much you add, then you have a good starting point to begin with for the next mash. I'd also measure ...


2

If the vast majority of your fermentables are coming from extract, pH isn't something you need to worry about. pH and heat are extremely important factors for mashing, but if you're using extract and specialty grains, you're not really mashing in the same sense. When you actually do start AG brewing you'll find that the grain addition tends to drop the pH to ...


2

Your pH was right on. The optimal range for alpha- and beta-amylase is 5.1 to 5.5. See the "mash target" bubble in this image from How To Brew.


2

Yes and no. Anything that absorbs a liquid that is not clear will also absorb the liquid's color, so yes. If you were to use a pH strip to absorb a wort solution that is high in the SRM scale, it will also absorb that wort's color as well. With that said, the amount of solution it is absorbing pales in comparison (hardy-har-har) to what you would pour in ...


2

The amount is dependent on desired speed and temperature constraint, possibly the condition of the grain. Make test batches and time how long they take to reach full conversion under your conditions. Any amount of enzyme held at a temperature within its active range will eventually convert all of the starch. Too slow of a conversion and you risk ...


1

In the UK the local water company can provide a report on the water quality and content. One would presume that any local water company providing drinking water would perform similar and regular analysis - just to check the water is safe to consume. That would be the easiest and best way to get the information on the amount of ions in the water used. In ...


1

I would expect RO water to lack the carbonates to buffer your mash pH. The water I tend to brew with has pH 7.2-8.0 mean 7.61 depending on time of year and a hardness as CaCO3 of ~270 ppm. This offers a fair amount of buffering. As you are only adding calcium chloride to the solution and no carbonate I am not surprised that your pH is more acidic than ...


1

To reduce alkalinity from 320 (6.4 meq/L) to 40 (0.8 mEq/L) you will need 6.4 - 0.8 = 5.6 mEq/L protons. I assume your finding that 1.5 mL of CRS will do this for you comes from the Brupaks table. Thus tells us that the normality of CRS is 5.6/1.4 = 4 N (a nice round number). Now we know that CRS is equimolar HCl and H2SO4 so that 2/3 of the protons (8/3 mEq/...


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