Fermentation temperature is often overlooked and it's really the key to making good beer. If you don't control the temp, everything else you do doesn't really matter. I prefer most beers to ferment in the 63-65F range. Whatever you do, don't let the beer get over 70F. That's beer temp, not room temp. Due to the heat created during fermentation, the beer ...
This depends entirely on if it was liquid or dry yeast.
Active dry yeast is very hardy. Most dry yeast strains can be kept at room temperature for 3+ months with negligable impact on the final product. Anecdotally I've gone even longer and still had a strong fermentation.
STORAGE During ...
Apart from your carpet, Everything Is Ok.
It's very normal during the active fermentation stage that a large amount of vigorous yeast comes to the top of the brew. If the amount of beer enables the foam to reach the top of the vessel (a carboy in this case), it will be pushed out through the air-lock. The airlock may also become clogged with yeast, bits ...
If yeast freezes conventionally (not cryo) it's dead. Ice crystals form within the cell and rupture cell walls.
Edit: If it's dry yeast. There's a good chance it's not beyond hope. Use it to make a starter to proof it and hopefully grow more healthy yeast.
It could be that there was an insufficient amount of active yeast in the beer when you bottled it. You could try this:
Uncap each bottle
Add two or three grains of dry yeast
Recap the bottles
Keep somewhere warm for a week or two.
The other possibility is that the alcohol percentage in the beer is high enough to kill any yeast. If the beer is above 10% ...
The yeast could be old. Sometimes those off the shelf kits can be really old, but all the ones I am familiar with come with dry yeast and those packs should be good for over a year, unless the pack got super hot, or a bad batch of yeast, etc.
Other potential issues with a higher finish gravity could be: the yeast isn't finished, so allow more time before ...
If that is truly your OG and not current SG, then the problem is likely with your measurement. When you top off the wort is heavier than the water and sinks to the bottom. It's really difficult to get them mixed, no matter how much you stir. SO when you take a reading you're getting it form the watered down portion on top.
Make sure you sanitize everything. Make sure you aerate your wort properly before pitching your yeast. Make sure you've got an air tight seal on your FV along with suitable blow off. As Denny said, try to control your fermentation temp. And be patient when it's fermenting. Don't open the vessel, don't shake it. Just relax and let it happen.
You can also try storing the bottles upside down for a week or two. I have had great success with this in the past. I assume it has something to do with the smaller area for the yeast and sugar to settle. One side note, once carbonated you'll need to turn them back over to resettle or you'll have the yeast ring around the bottle mouth.
Though I admire your efforts tremendously, wouldn't it be easier to go with a more straightforward recipe for your 1st non-kit brew? Just my opinion, but it might help you hone your skills. Vanilla, Coffee, Oatmeal, Milk? All in the same brew? Why not just start with an Oatmeal Stout first?
You don't want to boil the grains, that will make the beer very harsh and astringent (like tea that has stewed too long.) Looks like you got it backwards - start at 165°F to steep the grains, then remove the grains and then turn on the heat bring the liquid to a boil.
You need to steep both the grains and oats in hot water - so that the whole mixture ...
Butter is diacetyl. Yeast can eat it, so fortunately it ages out. Typically this will take 2-3 weeks in beer. I'm not sure how long in a ginger bug but my guess is similar timeframe. So just be patient, and give the culture time to eat it. Good luck!
Lalvin used to have a bunch of useful articles at http://www.lalvinyeast.com/articles but luckily there's the web archive. Here's a summary of two on the topic of yeast viability and storage. 
Freeze-dried yeast survives best frozen, but the biggest factor regardless of temperature is oxygen damage, thus want to store it vacuum packed. In original ...
If your wort has been reduced in volume due to water boiling off, adding water up to the original volume should not reduce your alcohol level as the amount of fermentable sugars remains the same.
Airlocks vs. blowoff tubes shouldn't be an issue, either. If the level in your fermenter has decreased this can't be due to airlock issues.
So I'm not sure what ...