13

About 80% of the sugars in the malt extract are fermentable, and about 20% are not. The main fermentables are maltose, maltriose, smaller amounts of sucrose, glucose and fructose. The remainder - about 20-25% are 20% unfermentable dextrins, the remaining 5% other less common sugars with variable fermentability by ale yeasts. Thus typical values are between ...


12

As far as I know, you can determine the final gravity solely with a refractometer only if you know the original gravity (either with a hydrometer or the refractometer). I am a small-batch brewer, and exclusively use a refractometer for gravity measurements. A few tips: You have to calibrate your refractometer to read zero when using distilled water as your ...


8

Adding water after primary fermentation is possible and called high gravity brewing. Yeast produce more esters at higher gravity which is a disadvantage for most beer types, but often desired e.g. for Hefeweizen. For a witbier is shouldn't be a problem, either.


7

Well, it's either the yeast or the wort that's giving you the trouble. You can find out by doing a forced fermentation test - take a small amount of wort, and pitch a relatively large amount of yeast (e.g. 1/2 sachet of dry yeast.) Keep it at 75F or more so that the yeast ferment out any fermentable sugars. After at least 1 day, or once the yeast have ...


7

Dry is the same as "not sweet". But high FG is not necessarily sweet. If the residual sugars are long-chain carbohydrates, they will contribute to body but not much to sweetness. So I'd say that low FG implies dry, but high FG does not necessarily imply sweet.


7

The problem is yeast, not unfermentables. Unless you made a starter, 1 pack for a 1.090 beer is way underpitching, assuming you made 5 gal. A single pack might work for 1 gal. at that gravity, but not 5. Also, a 1.010 FG for a 1.090 beer would make it very thin and bodiless. There is no accurate way to calculate FG.


7

At what temperature did you eventually mashed? Not sure how it works out with BIAB, but adding grains to a regular mash (even less volume compared to BIAB), the temperature only drops a few °C's. My guess is that if you added the grains at 80°C, you mashed at around 76/77°C. This is way too high, but 72°C is also too high. Mash temps range from 62-70C°, ...


6

BE SURE to boil any water you add at this point to deoxygenate it. If you don't, the added water will oxidize your beer and promote faster staling.


5

I believe it will be possible to add extra water to decrease the ABV but is it really necessary? If so I would get purified water and for a 43L batch add a few liters to decrease the ABV. Do this in the new carboy before racking the brew into it. If it was me I would leave it though. As mentioned by others without having the exact readings it is hard to say ...


5

At this point you don't know if the fermentation is stuck or finished. Despite the yeast attenuation rating, it's the fermentability of the wort that determines attenuation. Alcohol tolerance is not the problem. More yeast might help or it might not. Before you do anything you should try a fast ferment test to determine if there are any more fermentable ...


4

You can dilute/blend your beer to diminish the ABV (and increase the volume). Brew Your Own magazine has a nice article on that.


4

The key piece that's missing here is extraction efficiency - how much sugar you can get out of the grains. In the calculator, it's set at 80%, but it's doubtful you got that just from steeping and lautering in a pot. You typically need continual recirculation to get 80%+. With my old equipment (a large cooler with a hand-made series of pipes with slits.) I ...


4

You've sussed out the two changes from the addition of the fruit: you'll dilute the original beer, and also change its gravity, which after more fermentation will result in a new FG. Ideally you'd measure the pre-addition specific gravity, the post-addition SG, and the post-ferment FG. The difference between the OG and the pre-add SG, plus the difference ...


4

I think there are two things to consider here: Mashing temperature: at higher temperatures you will have increasingly less β-amylase activity, even with high diastatic-power malt, and this will favor production of non-fermentable dextrins and hence increase the FG (at 156° you'll have basically no β-amylase activity); and High proportions of Munich malt: ...


4

Any way you take a sample (unless it's from a pressurized vessel with an outlet) will draw air in. As you suspect, it should be a small amount, and given that your beer A) may still be fermenting (which CO2 will help strip any introduced oxygen out of the beer) and B) definitely still has yeast in it (which will scavenge oxygen, as long as it's still alive), ...


4

If you've done all that, I don't think you need to worry about bottle bombs. Lacto and malto are non-fermentable, long sugars which give this beer its body. And that is what is expected in this beer style. I'd bottle it.


4

Actually this shouldn't be too hard, provided you have an accurate scale. You can simply dissolve some white table sugar in your mead and compare the reading you get with the reading you would expect to get if you had dissolved the same amount of sugar in water instead. The difference will tell you how far below SG 1.000 (density of water) you are. For ...


4

Seeing that: US-05 has an apparent attenuation between 73% and 77% (Fermentis data sheet) You start from an OG of 1.120 And it is an extract beer (always more difficult to attenuate) I would conclude that your fermentation is finished. The calculated attenuation is now 75% which is nice in the middle of the expected attenuation of the yeast. You could ...


4

Your mash temp favors beta-amylase which makes a more fermentable wort. While beta-amylase denatures beginning at 149°F / 65°C it takes a little time. It's possible your thermometers are slightly out of adjustment and you may be further in beta range than realised. For a less fermentable wort mash at 154-156°F, this will denature beta-amylase quicker and ...


4

Could be yeast issue or 1.024 is the terminal gravity. Yeast: Even though you had some early flocculation. I doubt this is the cause of the stall. You can try to warm it up a little and get the yeast back in suspension to get it to finish out. Already at TG: A common mistake with stouts is using a lot of specialty grains. These dark grains have a large ...


4

No. I'm not aware of cacao nibs having any enzyme inhibiting abilities. Either something else caused a less fermentable wort. Ie higher temp or low beta-amylase in malt. Or, something caused yeast to give up on an otherwise fermentable wort. Stress, low nutrients, low oxygen, low pitch etc. Edit: looking closer at the recipe I would NOT put a 1.015 ...


3

A few thoughts, and I hope I can answer your question in the process: The only fermentables to speak of will be your malt extracts — the other grain is just adjuncts and will not contribute a significant amount of long-chain sugars for fermentation. So you can pretty much rule out the mash. But as to your malt extract, is it fresh? Do you have any reason to ...


3

My understanding of "synonymous" is that it means "equivalent to". Therefore clearly no, "dry" is not equivalent to "low FG" which is not equivalent to "drinkable". However, they may well be related since low FG correlates with light body which can aid in drinkability. Similarly, if you like dry beer then you'll find it drinkable. And why exclude "...


3

In my own experience, "dry" and "low FG" are completely unrelated. This surprised me at first, but there are a lot of other factors besides FG that determine the 'dryness' of the beer. Right off the bat, the amount of hop bitterness counterbalances the sweetness. Likewise, any astringent character from the mineral qualities of the water will start chipping ...


3

The words may get frequently overloaded, but they actually all mean different things. I'll attempt to explain below. Dry(ness) -- Tends to refer to the amount of detectable sweetness in the final beverage. A beer that is hardly sweet would be considered dry. A dry beer could be correlated to Low FG, as little sugar would remain in the beer to taste. Low FG ...


3

1.044 Final Gravity?!?! You have a severe danger of bottle bombs! For future reference, you should dissolve your sugar in some boiling water, then pour that into the bucket, then rack the beer on top of the sugar water. That ensures equal distribution. I'm afraid you are going to have problems with this batch. Probably, a lot of the bottles will be ...


3

The liquid boils off but the sugars remain. Since specific gravity is a measure of density, the wort becomes more dense when there's less liquid but the amount of sugar remains the same.


3

It's hard to get a low original gravity when brewing from an extract kit. As long as you added all the malt extract and sugar provided with the kit, and you added the correct amount of water, there's really no way for the starting gravity to be low. I can think of two possible reasons that your OG was lower than expected: you added more water than ...


3

It's not really possible to answer this question without knowing how sweet the watermelon was. That is, we need to the watermelon's brix. When you added the watermelon, you added some water and some sugar. The sugar will ferment, increasing the alcohol content and the water will dilute, decreasing the alcohol content. According to this page, watermelons ...


3

I'd suspect either a faulty thermometer that's reading deceptively low is to blame, or perhaps your mash water chemistry is really off and you aren't getting full conversion. For the former, check your thermometer in crushed ice-water to ensure that its reading 32F, and in boiling water to ensure its 212F. Don't be shocked if you can't get it to read 212F ...


Only top voted, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible