13

I am a very big fan of pressurized fermentation. The benefits I see, in rough order of the value I place on them: 1) Pressurized ferments streamline my process tremendously. This is the big one. Once my wort is chilled, I transfer to a regular corny keg (just under 5 gallons). I keep the fermentation at 5 psi until it starts slowing down, and then I cap to ...


12

Headspace in the carboy is nice to avoid this, but ultimately, a blow-off tube is the answer. By switching out the airlocks, you did the right thing, and ultimately, as long as you didn't let it sit exposed for a long period of time (in the realm of 20+ minutes), the likelihood of infection isn't high. Plus, the krausen (foamy stuff that sits on top of the ...


11

For skunked beer, we're worried about Violet and UV light. There's a lot of information available on this, so I won't go into that science. Basically, we want to limit as much light less than 500nm as possible and all light under 400nm (UV) if possible. Halogen bulbs follow a similar pattern to incandescent bulbs (ref). This chart compares different bulbs, ...


10

Ideally when using irish moss, very little of it should end up in the fermentor. It's a good idea to let the boil settle for 10-15 minutes after flameout so that the moss and the proteins it's attracted have time to fall to the bottom of the kettle. But even if it does make it to the fermentor, it won't have any significant affect on the yeast: The irish ...


10

This is no problem at all. To address your questions: "what effect (taste, strength, yeast effects) might I expect from adding the sugar at the start of fermentation?" Priming sugar (almost definitely glucose a.k.a dextrose), being nearly tasteless and highly fermentable (90+%), will increase ABV% without adding either residual (unfermentable) sugar or ...


10

Having done both, I can tell you that sugar (corn or table, doesn't matter) is the way to go. It's easy reliable and tasteless. Priming with gyle (the name for what you propose) is uncertain and offers no advantage to your beer.


9

Yes, fermentation will produce orders of magnitude more CO₂ than it takes to bubble the airlock. But usually when people are not seeing bubbles, it's because there is some other, easier, way for the CO₂ to escape. Either an improperly-sealed bucket lid or an improperly-set bung in a carboy neck. Don't worry about seeing airlock activity, except as it might ...


9

Beers do tend to age and have a sweet spot, per se, of when their flavor peaks. Every beer and beer style is different without a doubt. But what you are describing is more related to your experience level. When beers starts to "decline" they don't normally start to pick up strength. In fact, when the beer went into the bottle it should have been done ...


9

I advise looking at HotHead from Omega Labs: http://www.omegayeast.com/portfolio/14158-2/ Flocculation: Medium-High Attenuation: 75-85% Temperature Range: 62-98° F (16-37° C) Alcohol Tolerance: 11% ABV


8

Using sorbate is the only way to have a chance of stropping fermentation and even that can be unreliable. If you keg rather than bottle, attempting to stop fermentation is less dangerous since a keg won't explode like bottles can. As has been said, the real solution is to brew the beer you want to drink.


8

Here is a link to an overview of sugars in beer I have brewed with multiple sugars before but never maple and I'm not certain what golden syrup is. Honey is a very common ingredient. In my uses it leaves a mild honey flavor but ferments out almost completely. I've used brown sugar and it adds a sweetness but I personally feel the raw demerara sugar leaves a ...


8

Adding water to something will lower its gravity. When adding water to wort from a concentrated extract brew process its not uncommon for the two to not mix completely. When you added the water you turned over some of the wort and took a sample of something that was more dense than intended. No big deal. It will equilibrate and the fermentation action of ...


7

Likely late in the game now, but you can also put oak chips on a sanitized cooking sheet at 200F or so and leave in the oven for 15 minutes or so. This will sanitize the chips, and subtly brings out some of the flavour, but not too much tannic or other astringent flavours. Essentially you are pasteurizing the oak chips by heating them to 138F (min), before ...


7

You essentially have four options: 1) Use a blow off tube. Advantage: Easy to do. Disadvantage: You risk losing some beer. 2) Find a bigger vessel. Advantage: No beer lost. Disadvantage: You need to find a bigger vessel. 3) Use a foam suppressor like Fermcap. Advantage: You'll lose less beer than with a blowoff. Disadvantage: Some people don't like ...


7

Wyeast 1968 is not a high attenuator to begin with - 67-71%, and has a temperature range of 64-72F (source). I think your temperature of 62F is the main culprit, especially if it's fluctuating, although there are other factors that contribute to the low attenuation. There are several changes you might consider next time: since you're using an English ...


7

Well, it's either the yeast or the wort that's giving you the trouble. You can find out by doing a forced fermentation test - take a small amount of wort, and pitch a relatively large amount of yeast (e.g. 1/2 sachet of dry yeast.) Keep it at 75F or more so that the yeast ferment out any fermentable sugars. After at least 1 day, or once the yeast have ...


7

It is impossible to predict YOUR FG. I know nothing about your skill level, your fermentation processes (temp, O2, pitching rates). I know nothing about the yeast you plan to use. I know nothing about the true fermentability of the extract and booster you are using. That said some estimates can be made. In the best of scenarios if we assume a 65% ...


7

At this point in the process, you're pretty much committed to letting the ferment continue to completion. With fruit wine, the usual course of action is to add meta-bisulphite to the juice or pulp, and leave it for 24 hours before adding the yeast. The sulphite reduces the activity of wild yeasts and bacteria, giving the brewer's yeast a head start. If the ...


7

Duct tape....I've done it more than once.


7

This will not work with a tea-bag or any other kind of cloth. Unless it's enclosed in a very fine membrane the yeast would easily be able to get through, then disperse and propogate in the main liquid. However, something like this can actually be done. Some homebrewers have taken a high-technology cue from industrial beer and do what's known as an ...


7

You're fine, no need to panic. Leave your beer alone for another 2-3 weeks. Seriously, don't touch it, look at it, think about it, etc. Just leave it be for as long as you can stand it, and bottle it after 2-3 have passed. Regarding the smell, fermenting beer throws off all kinds of crazy, nasty, wonderful, weird smells as part of the fermentation process. ...


7

Grape skins have wild yeast on them that will, in time, ferment the grape juice. Depending on the particular blend of yeast on your grapes, you may get complete fermentation, or the yeast may have low alcohol tolerance and the fermentation will halt before all the sugars have been consumed. Yeast contribute to the flavour profile of the wine, and ...


7

According to info I got from John Palmer for an upcoming article I wrote for BYO magazine, the cleanup happens concurrently with fermentation. Here's the quote..."Yeast have 3 phases in their life cycle: Adaptation, High Growth, and Stationary. (See Yeast by CW and Jamil) They do not have a maturation phase where they clean up byproducts. Adaptation phase ...


7

Interestingly, I found a presentation by Thomas H. Shellhammer, professor of fermentation science at OSU, that shows the composition of a typical hop cone: Cellulose and Lignin: 40-50% Protein: 15% Alpha Acids: 2-15% Beta Acids: 2-10% Water: 8-12% Minerals: 8% Polyphenols and Tannins: 3-6% Lipids and Fatty Acids: 1-5% Hop Oil: 0.5-3% Monosaccharides: 2% ...


7

'Anything to worry about?' Really, it's nothing to worry about at all. 'Could this have oxidized the beer?' Sure, technically, but to a really negligible amount. How much this might effect the beer depends on when during fermentation/conditioning this was. During primary it's really inconsequential. During conditioning may be a tiny bit worse since ...


7

This is caused by a drop in temp before co2 is being produced. Just cap the fermenter in sanitized foil until you're past the lag phase, or cooled to fermentaion temp. Though a little bit of starsan won't hurt much, foil is better than an open airlock IMO. I don't put air locks on until the wort is at fermentaion temp. I also remove the airlock then foil ...


7

Chlorine you can boil off before use, usually a hard boil for 20 minutes will get rid of Chlorine. Unless your water district uses a binder which is rare. Chloramine cannot be boiled off and needs to be chemically stripped. Campden tablets do well.


7

The problem is that the hydrometer is used the amount of sugar in the solution, not the amount of alcohol. So you can measure the original gravity (OG), and the final gravity (FG), but in kombucha the alcohol produced by the fermentation is transformed into acetic and other acids. So you can not measure if there really is alcohol in the kombucha. The only ...


6

Some widely respected people advise against it, like: Racking to prevent autolysis is not necessary Whilst it might be true, in some cases, it is not true in case of strong stuff, stuff that will stay in fermenter long time. See wine resources - for yeast wine with nutrient is not so different than wort. And even if this particular part, this one reason ...


6

Don't worry have a homebrew. It is very unlikely that a temperature change from 80-72 would shock the yeast. People like to ferment at lower temperatures because it produces less byproducts that add off flavors to beer. Additionally, 6 hours for the temperature change is definitely not a quick temperature change in the time scale of yeast. Agreed only a ...


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