It's not at all ruined. The airlock is working exactly as intended. Unless there is a growth of mold all the way up the blow-off tube and into the fermentor, you're fine.
It's not so much that the bleach evaporated as it was denatured by the copious blow-off material. You don't need to "re-up" on bleach (you really don't even need bleach) so much as discard ...
You essentially have four options:
1) Use a blow off tube.
Advantage: Easy to do.
Disadvantage: You risk losing some beer.
2) Find a bigger vessel.
Advantage: No beer lost.
Disadvantage: You need to find a bigger vessel.
3) Use a foam suppressor like Fermcap.
Advantage: You'll lose less beer than with a blowoff.
Disadvantage: Some people don't like ...
Keep it in for as long as there's a large krausen (the foam on top of the beer.) You can then choose to remove it and replace with an airlock or you can leave in until the end of fermentation and you're ready to rack. If you do remove it and replace with an airlock, there is potentially a risk of contamination, but not much if you sanitize all the airlock ...
If fermenting in a corney keg you will never yield 5 gallons of finished beer.
If 5 gallons finished beer is the goal use 6-6.5 carboys and brew 5.5-6 gallons of beer.
Primary yeast cake easily takes 1/3 gallon, secondary can be a little less.
Allow a good 1/2 gallon loss of dry hopping.
Headspace is how you will limit blow off loss. If filling a corney ...
All humor aside it should clean easily with mild soap and water. I've found that dish soap 1:20 ratio in a spray bottle does well on latex paint for all kinds of mishaps. Don't use soaps with bleach. Test a small area for discoloring, but allow to dry before you decide. My paint does change color when wet but returns to normal once dry.
Spray and let soak ...
Sounds like a vigorous, but otherwise normal fermentation. Rack to secondary, if that's your process, or leave it in the carboy for another week or two before bottling. The krausen residue on the walls of the carboy won't affect the final beer.
In the future you might consider using a blow-off tube instead of an airlock.
What blew out is just the krausen while it has a lot of great yeast in it, there should be plenty left to complete fermentation.
Just a note.
Cornmeal needs a cereal mash to expose starches and then enzymes from grain or adding them directly to get fermentable sugars on a mash. If this wasn't done then all that fermented was the 10lb of sugar, so keep that ...
That's a question that's been debated with no definitive answer. Some say it's better to blow off the braun hefe becasue of the bitterness it might contribute. Others say it's better to use a larger fermenter so you don't lose yeast. There really is no right or wrong answer other than "try it each way and decide for yourself".
Yes, you're fine. No, don't xfer to a secondary...at least not yet. You probably don't need a secondary at all. A lot of brewers have found that it's unnecessary. If you decide you want to xfer, give it at least 3 weeks in primary first. There's nothing wrong with leaving it in there that long.
I have noticed with any airlock, some of the solution in the air lock can go into the fermenter. Most of the time, the pressure inside the fermeter is greater, so air escapes. However, when temperature drops, pressure decreases, which causes the liquid in the airlock to be sucked into the fermenter.
In the future, it's probably best to switch out from a ...
The only issue I can see is potentially overwhelming the blow-off setup by sending in three primary fermentations worth of foam through one dip tube, since you indicate you'd set this system at the start of fermentation. Between the long, skinny dip tube and all the narrow passages through posts and fittings, I could imagine some of the really chunky first ...
I imagine some flow of foam between kegs might be possible, but not necessarily bad. Almost a Burton Union system if done right.
I would make sure that each keg has it's own relief valve (these are cornies, right?) and try to use clear tubing as much as possible, so you can see that foam is flowing and each keg is fermenting on schedule.
I like to use PBW (or the home made version) to clean hard surfaces like that. Dissolve in some hot water and scrub. It will remove most anything and is safe for brewing when rinsed properly. Follow up with a thorough rinsing and then use a no-rinse sanitizer to ensure it's all clean.
Home made PBW recipes can be found online, but the base is Oxiclean Free (...