It's too soon to bottle.
If fermentation is not completely finished and you bottle, you risk having bottles exploding; loosing beer. It is no worth the risk.
Make sure the fermentation is complete before bottling. Take a gravity reading at the end fermentation, and if the gravity reading is steady for 2-3 days, it generally means it's done.
Waiting a ...
It's likely that your pellets had some very finely chopped hops in them. They have escaped the bag and triggered a bit of bubble formation in the beer, bringing them to the top of the beer. Hopefully they'll stick to the fermenter when you rack or bottle.
I think your fermentation time (7 days primary, 14 days secondary) is a good enough timeline. When you say "American Ale Yeast", do you mean dry yeast safale-05 (the red packet)?
My guess is the issue is high fermentation temperatures and/or yeast health. I know it's difficult to keep temps in check if the carboy is just in a closet or something. ...
Well, that is not the way a hydrometer is used. What you measure is the density of the wort/beer, which shows how many sugar is contained in the liquid. The amount of sugar in liquid solution increases the density (or gravity) of the liquid.
At the start of the brew you have a certain "Original Gravity" or OG, which, depending upon the wort made, ...
I found this clone on Brewer's Friend:
Boil size 3Gal
OG: 1066 FG: 1012
4lb American Pale 2Row
1lb American White Wheat
0.55lb Cane Sugar (late addition)
145F for 90 min
0.25oz Simcoe 60min
0.5oz Amarillo 20min
0.5oz Mosaic 5min
0.5oz Citra 0min
Safale US-05 fermenting at 60F
The time range is only an estimate it's ok to be a bit over or under, same for the predicted final gravity. The airlock is also only useful as an estimate, there could be plenty of activity going on while there isn't much visibly going on.
The only completely reliable method to know that fermentation is done, is that the gravity has stabilized. Leave it for ...
Keep in mind that Vienna malt needs to be mashed. Although if you steep it for 45-60 min. at about 150F, that will be pretty much the same as mashing. Also, amber extract will have crystal and other malts already added to it. I'd recommend using the lightest extract you can find, preferably dry, then add your own specialty malts.
I'd get rid of everything where you don't know why it's in the recipe. As a beginning brewer, I try to keep my ingredients to a bare minimum (1 lme/dme, 1 steeping grain, 1 hop, 1 yeast) when making my own recipes (ok, I made a triple-hop ale but the hops I stole from Duvel so that doesn't count). Also, I "develop" my recipes on a site with a built-in ...