Questions tagged [water]

H2O - dihydrogen oxide, hydrogen hydroxide. Comprises over 90% of most beers. Termed "liquor" when used in the brewing process.

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6 answers
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Can carbonate reducing solution lead to off flavours?

I live in an area with very high alkalinity ~ 320 mg / l CaCO3. I am planing on using Carbonate Reducing Solution CRS to bring the alkality down to acceptable levels for pale ales. To lower the ...
1 vote
2 answers
29 views

Calculating boil evaporation loss as a function of pre-boil volume (PBV)?

I had done some cursory digging online and found that at my elevation the boil evaporation loss was about 14% per hour. So to test this out I boiled 3785mL (1 gallon) of water for an hour in my brew ...
2 votes
1 answer
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Treating water with brew salts to hit a target profile, by example

I'm fairly new to brewing and for the first half-dozen batches I have just used packets of Burtonizing Water Salts to treat my water picked up at my local homebrew supply store. So far, per that store'...
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1 answer
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Besides sparge water, what other water do all-grain brewers add in (and why)?

I have done a few extract kit beers and now a few partial mashes. I am starting the process of ramping up to all-grain. In many online "brewing calculators", such as this mash water ...
2 votes
2 answers
71 views

Options for recirculating water chiller

I'm starting to homebrew and noticed that during the cooling process A LOT of water is used going through the counterflow chiller. I'm on a well, and I'd like to minimize water usage, especially ...
1 vote
2 answers
83 views

Same dry and bitter taste with two different IPA brews

So I got a Chinook IPA kit last Xmas from Northern Brewer and made my first ever home brew. I followed instructions except I think I made the mistake of steeping grains in boiling water. Everything ...
1 vote
1 answer
105 views

First time brewing a Porter (BIAB) - Need help!

first time poster (long time lurker) on these forums. Hope you'll are doing well. I am 6 months into this hobby and have brewed 3 Pale Ales which have ranged from disastrous to pretty bad :P I now am ...
4 votes
4 answers
897 views

What is beer structure as described by john palmer?

In chapter 22 of how to brew by john palmer there is a section called adjusting water for style. further down there is a handy brew cube: Across the bottom there is a vector called "beer structure" ...
1 vote
2 answers
185 views

Chlorine taste in 3 batches 🤬

I’m new here, but wondering if any of you guys & Girls help! I’ve been brewing for about a year and done over 20 brews of various different beers mainly PA’s and IPA’s using a Grainfather. For ...
7 votes
3 answers
3k views

What are the effects of adding water after the boil?

During the boil a lot of water is evaporated off. I have a 30L boiler and generally end up with around 22L in the fermentation vessel. After racking off from the fermentation and leaving the trub ...
2 votes
1 answer
84 views

Are there benefits to using mineral water in your mash?

Should you use boiled tap water or mineral water when making spirit?
7 votes
2 answers
1k views

Hops Wort Absorption

According to BYO malt absorbs roughly 1.04L of water per kg malt. Knowing this makes calculating things like mash and sparge water quite a bit easier. Is there a rough absorption rate for hops? I've ...
2 votes
2 answers
4k views

Does chlorine kill yeast?

Does chlorine in tap water kill yeast? Does chloramine kill yeast? Specifically Lalvin 71B wine yeast? Is it OK to use filtered tap water (Culligan filter) to re-hydrate yeast?
36 votes
8 answers
442k views

What are the various ways to remove chlorine/chloramine from tap water?

OK, I actually know how to remove chlorine, but I'd like to have the pros and cons of each method spelled out. I will post an answer and mark it as a community wiki. Please edit it with your input.
5 votes
3 answers
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What Calcium ppm is required in the mash for alpha-amylase stability and mash efficiency?

I recently moved and my water here is quite soft with a very low pH. As such, I've taken to adding many of my brewing salts in the brew kettle and only using salts in the mash to balance the pH. ...
14 votes
5 answers
25k views

Do you filter water, or just use tap water?

Back when I started homebrewing, I used a Pur filter. I've since moved and my kitchen sink won't accept any sort of filter. I've brewed a few batches with just Fairfax County, VA tap water, and not ...
3 votes
3 answers
165 views

Help me debug my Christmas Ale band-aid flavor

Recently I brewed two batches of a copycat Christmas Ale. You can ignore the recipe's water adjustments, since I didn't do them. Before fermenting, the wort smelled and tasted perfect - just the ...
18 votes
7 answers
10k views

How much water does a wort chiller use?

I am thinking on buying an immersion chiller and from other threads I've thought of using the post-chiller hot water for cleanup, and I've also heard of using the water (after it starts to cool down) ...
5 votes
4 answers
698 views

Adding minerals back into reverse osmosis water?

Everyone knows that reverse osmosis filter strips out the minerals from water, but no one on Google is telling the way to adding them back into the water. I have been drinking reverse osmosis water ...
6 votes
1 answer
105 views

water for brewing

I used tap water for my first batch and it came out with a little off taste and flavor that I referred to as a bandaid. I looked it up and found it could be the water I am using, are there any good ...
4 votes
2 answers
71 views

Salt additions to the glass

So here's my predicament: I've realized that my city water has low Chloride levels compared to the sulfates (i.e. the sulfate/chloride ratio is higher than ideal). Reading that this might be the case, ...
5 votes
3 answers
6k views

Does a Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) reading of 0 imply that my water has 0 ppm for the various minerals?

I installed a nice water filtration system with cataylic carbon, reverse osmosis, and deionization. I bought a $15 TDS reader from amazon. My unfiltered tap water has TDS of 398 ppm, and my filtered ...
3 votes
3 answers
475 views

What is the most important parameter to measure in water

I live in a region where the water is very hard, so I am considering spending a little more on bottled water to have more of a choice. Supposing that one can choose the water to use, but he doesn't ...
5 votes
2 answers
9k views

How long must water be boiled to remove temporary hardness (bicarbonates)

From Papazian's Joy of Homebrewing: In the US temporary hardness is determined by a measure of bicarbonates [2(HCO3)].The hardness that bicarbonate ions contribute is temporary because it is easily ...
11 votes
3 answers
2k views

Diluting beer after 11 hours of fermentation. What to expect?

Ended up with too high gravity wort. Since I was not prepared for this I didn't have enough sterile water to dilute the wort. I ended up pitching the yeast anyway and adding sterile water at 11 hours ...
6 votes
4 answers
463 views

Difference of water content for difference in taste

My brother and my father both brewed the same beer at the same time in the same general area. General area being each at their own home, but separated by about 20 miles and they are in different ...
5 votes
4 answers
2k views

Brewing with rainwater / tank water

I'm lucky enough to have beautiful New Zealand rainwater to brew with. But, what are the considerations in terms of mineral content? Is rainwater close to distilled water? Having gone through the ...
4 votes
3 answers
225 views

Will my Reverse Osmosis water lose its purity if its not used immediately?

I just installed a reverse osmosis and deionizer water filtration system, and it is extremely slow. I calculate that it will take 3-4 hours to filter out 10 gallons of water. I am planning on filling ...
2 votes
1 answer
49 views

Own malted barley use

I malted my own barley for experiment. But I've not used them yet. I mean bought castle malt and munton's Irish Stout LME but haven't used them too yet. First, I want to brew my own malted barley, if ...
3 votes
3 answers
218 views

What effect do water ions have on mash efficiency *other* than adjusting Ph?

I searched the questions and did not find an answer to my particular question. As the title says, my question is: What effect do water ions have on mash efficiency other than adjusting Ph? Put ...
3 votes
2 answers
393 views

How to dissolve water additions

I’m fairly new to water adjustments. This in only my fourth batch with additions. One thing I notice is the additions don’t seem to dissolve. I added 9g gypsum, 4 g calcium chloride and 1 g epsom salt ...
1 vote
5 answers
734 views

Which reasonably priced UK bottled waters are lightly, or very lightly, mineralised?

I can't drink the water straight from my kitchen tap because it reeks of chlorine. Left standing it's palatable but, starting brewing again after 30 years or so, it's still not something I'd want to ...
2 votes
4 answers
260 views

Water- distilled or not?

Is distilled water a necessity? I live in Louisville and we have some of the best water in the world.(hence our amazing whiskey)
3 votes
4 answers
721 views

Conserve water used in immersion chilling?

After reading this question about the amount of water used in immersion chilling (and various other wort chilling), I realized just how much water was being used in a standard brew. This seems quite ...
7 votes
4 answers
2k views

How do I test my water?

Inspired by this question. How do I test my water?
2 votes
1 answer
376 views

Salty Starter. From Gypsum?

I'm using gypsum for the first time in an IPA I will be brewing in a few days. Today I was making the starter and thought: Since it's a hopped starter, why not add a pinch of gypsum? In the end I ...
3 votes
2 answers
2k views

Should I worry about mash pH when brewing with RO water?

I always use RO water to brew. I have never checked mash pH, but have become concerned since my brews have come out darker than predicted by BrewSmith. I thought (I read in How to Brew by Palmer) ...
0 votes
2 answers
337 views

Does distilled water and/or alcohol cause airlocks not to bubble?

I fermented my first batch of extract in a plastic 'ale pail' using an airlock with the following mixture in it: 50% tap water; and 50% whiskey It never bubbled. Not even once. In 3 days. And while ...
3 votes
3 answers
128 views

How do I predict vaporisation during the boil?

I am trying to predict the litres/hour vaporised during the boil, so I can adjust the amount of sparging water accordingly. Is there an easy way of doing this a priori by utilising other known ...
1 vote
2 answers
147 views

Boiling Tap Water: Covered or Uncovered?

When I'm preparing my make-up water before making wine or beer, should I boil it with the lid on (to minimize evaporation of the water) or with the lid off (to maximize evaporation of volatile ...
2 votes
1 answer
1k views

My bottles are Conditioning underwater. Why are there bubbles on the caps on day 2 but not day 0 through 1?

On Sunday (day 0) I bottled beer for the first time (with my first batch). I asked my brother how I could determine whether or not I successfully locked the caps onto the bottles to make them air-...
4 votes
2 answers
2k views

Chloramine effects in small quantities

I'm curious what effect (if any) chloramine-treated tap water has when used in small quantities, such as a yeast starter or when boiled with priming sugar to use a priming solution. My municipal water ...
1 vote
2 answers
2k views

Recommended dose of Campden Tablets to remove chloramine

I'm trying to determine the proper dosage of Campden Tablets to remove chloramine from water. I keep seeing 1 tablet per 20 gallons posted all over brewing forums, but I never see a source for this ...
3 votes
2 answers
1k views

Longer boil time for high gravity?

I'm getting ready to brew an all grain 9.5% double IPA. I normally almost always boil for 60 minutes, but some research has indicated that for bigger beers like this, more water from the mash to start ...
2 votes
1 answer
848 views

Calculating boil volume in partial boil?

I'm an all-grain brewer but I haven't done an extract batch in years (or an all-grain one in over a year) and want to do an extract IPA this week. Looking at the various software and calculators, they ...
2 votes
2 answers
73 views

Do water filters decay at a linear rate for the various chemicals it filters?

I have a reverse osmosis and deionization unit that is able to filter my 450 PPM TDS tap water down to 0 PPM TDS. It has been about three months, and my TDS reader now gives 3 PPM TDS. Do water ...
2 votes
1 answer
379 views

At what PPM does Chlorine become unnaceptable to use as water in brewing?

I have a reverse osmosis and deionization unit that filters my tap water from 450PPM TDS to 0 PPM TDS. I have had it for about 3 months and my TDS reader is now creeping up to 3 PPM. I was ...
3 votes
3 answers
565 views

tap water with chloramine

I made a homebrew today using tap water, and to my horror I realized I forgot to add the campden tablets to neutralize the chloramine. About 5 years back I made the same stupid mistake, and ...
-1 votes
1 answer
105 views

What are essential minerals to added to water which is filtered through Reverse Osmosis, when to be added whether after or before Ozonisation

Sir, I want information with reference to the subject cited above. What are the essential minerals to be added to water after purification and Reverse osmosis? When are the minerals to be added -...
3 votes
2 answers
482 views

Do Reverse Osmosis water filtration systems produce water with negligible amounts of minerals, or is an additional deionization component required?

I want to purchase some type of water filtration system to produce water that contains negligible amounts of minerals. Currently I purchase distilled water from Walmart, and I want my water filtration ...