I have a copy of my city water quality report in hand and, with no particular reason other to than to understand how water quality can affect the taste of beer, would like to know where I can find information describing common off-flavors and the root cause a component of the source water might have had in their production as well as acceptable ranges or limits thereof?
Martin Brungard's excellent water spreadsheet (free at sites.google.com/site/brunwater/) not only will help you calculate what type of water you need for a particular beer, it also has a great section on water in general that should answer many of your questions. Your city water report may not give you all the info you need. For a complete analysis that includes all the info you need to have, go to www.wardlab.com and get test W-6 for about $16.50.
Palmer has some good information in How to Brew. Here is a link to the 'free' edition.