I extracted the juice and moved it to a container for two days(as per instructions)mixed the yeast with the sugar water and left for two days,then mixed together,but there was no fermentation,why would that be?Thankyou.
Let me ask you: I installed the spark plug into my SUV - and tried to ignite, but it's not working. Why?
Rhetorical question. What I am trying to say is that it is very hard to answer this question without more information. That said, a few possible explanations:
Nothing is wrong
There is no bubbling via the airlock, so you assume there is no fermentation. However, the lid on your fermentation bucket is not air tight. Did you measure OG? Then measure SG again, if it is lower, then it is indeed slowly fermenting.
Two days is not that much time - my last brew (of apple wine actually) started showing pressure after two and a half days. Perhaps the yeast you pitched was not fit for fight and needed some extra time to grow?
Higher SG causes slower fermentation, the high sugar concentrations acts as a inhibitor.
Low temperature can cause slow fermentation.
It is not fermenting
You are trying to ferment at a very low temperature, which has caused the yeast to go dormant. Or, you started fermenting at high temperatures, then quickly lowered the temperature, which shocked the yeast into dormancy.
You somehow mixed the yeast with too hot water and killed it.
Hard to say without more information. Did the starter culture show any signs of living?
There are many reasons you could have a stuck fermentation. With more information about the process you used, it would be easier to tell what might have happened. However I'll throw out a few common problems:
- Bad yeast - Where did you purchase the yeast and how long ago? How was it stored? It may have been dead before you tried to pitch it. It also sounds like you tried to make a starter before pitching into the juice. Did you see any bubbling or frothing in the starter? If not the yeast were probably not viable due to age or improper storage.
- Temperature problems - If the water in your starter was too hot the yeast may have died. If the water in the juice was too cold they may have flocculated out too quickly. You want to ferment around 65-75°F depending on the recipe. Too far off from this and you will have problems with the fermentation. Fast changes in temperature can also shock the yeast, causing a stuck fermentation.
- Bad fermentation conditions - If the gravity in juice is too high the osmotic pressure can prevent the yeast from taking in nutrients, shocking them into dormancy or killing them. If the juice was poorly oxygenated the yeast can have trouble reproducing, causing slower or stuck fermentations.
Examine your process with this in mind and you will probably be able to find the issue so you can fix it in future batches!
I've brewed a lot of cider and never have read instructions like what you describe. Letting yeast sit in sugar water for two days probably caused them to go dormant. Normally, you pitch (add) the yeast within a couple of minutes (no more than an hour) after mixing with some sugar water to activate it (assuming that you were using dry yeast). Did you see bubbles in the container with yeast and sugar water? If not, then probably a bad package of yeast. If you are using dry yeast, there should be a use by date on it. Try activating another package of the yeast in water than is around 105 F (slightly warm to touch) with about a tablespoon of sugar in it. Let this sit until you see foam forming at the top of the container. Hopefully, you pasteurized the juice/cider before adding the yeast, if not, do so by heating it to 160 F for about 20 minutes, let it cool to room temperature, then pitch the new yeast. Cover the container with cheesecloth or seal it with an airlock. It takes about 6 to 10 days to ferment 5 gal of juice/cider at 68-70 F.
Here is the basic recipe that you asked for. The yeast nutrient helps assure that you get good yeast action (not a problem if you have fresh yeast). At 70F, it took less than 4 days to ferment out. Cider was ok (fairly flat) in 2 weeks after bottling (couldn't resist tasting it), but excellent in 4. Think I'm going to try a batch primed with dark brown sugar to see how it tastes. Cheers.
Basic Hard Apple Cider
• 4 gal. Musselmann’s Apple Cider (pasteurized, 100% juice, no preservatives) • 5 tsp yeast nutrient • 1 packet Red Star Cotes de Blanc yeast • 3 tsp white sugar for activating yeast • 1.25 cup white sugar for priming before bottling
Dissolve yeast nutrient in a small portion of slightly warm cider, then add cider and yeast nutrient solution to carboy. Activate yeast by adding 3 tsp sugar to 1 cup filtered water at about 105 F, then mixing in the yeast package contents. Allow to stand for at least 15 min until foaming begins to occur. Add yeast to carboy, and swirl vigorously for 5 minutes to aerate cider mixture. Seal with airlock and allow to ferment at 65-70 F until bubble rate in airlock is less than one bubble per 15 sec. Rack into priming bucket and add priming sugar as calculated based on desired CO2 volume. Bottle and allow to age for at least 4 weeks.