After fermentation and going to keg, how long before the beer should be properly carbonated? I have the kegs in the fridge and set at 14 lbs.
I assume you are at 14PSI and that you chose a pressure setting based upon the temperature in the fridge and the carbonation level you want to achieve.
If you are doing "set and forget" one week should do it, maybe 10 days. Depends to a small extent the type of beer.
Agree with Brewchez. That's pretty much what I do.
But if you're in a hurry, you can speed things up by shaking your keg for about 30 seconds or a minute. Then let it sit for a day to settle down and give it a try. Agitating the keg speeds absorption of C02.
This covers it for most people I know and has the carb chart for the set and forget method as well: http://brulosophy.com/methods/carbonation-methods/