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I'm reading the opti-red directions and it says to add at "first punchdown". Does that mean right after I add my yeast, 24hours after crushing and sulfating? Or does that mean 24 hours after adding the yeast?

If I'm cold-soaking, should I add opti-red at the start of that process?

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Punchdown refers to the action of pushing down the cap. The cap is formed during maceration by the pomace (the solids) that rise to the surface. Normally punching down the cap twice a day allows the must to be in contact with the pomace to extract more flavour and tannins.

To answer your question, after crushing the must will form a cap after a few hours (or a day). You will punch down the cap as soon as it forms, so that is the first punchdown.

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