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I recently brewed a milk stout from an LME kit, which I racked into a secondary on New Year's Day. After 2 weeks of no fermentation, I checked the final gravity, and found it rested at 0.030, which was too high (target between 0.024 and 0.020), despite an OG that was spot on. I warmed it up a little, gave it a swirl, and added a small amount of dry ale yeast. One week later it was bubbling away again, which has just come to a stop about this morning, just over 1 month after I initially racked it. I have tested it just now showing an FG of around 0.020 -- so it's finally done!

My question is whether, I should re-rack into a secondary for a couple of weeks, now that it's finally finished fermenting. I would transfer it to a bucket, clean out the yeast and sediment that's lining the bottom of the carboy, then rack it back in there. Presently, it tastes just fine, and is pretty clear, so expect it would be fine to just go ahead and bottle, but I wonder whether it would be wise to let it sit a while off the yeast that has now accumulated.

  • If you're not concerned about clarity, and the recipe doesn't call for adding ingredients to a secondary fermentation, I wouldn't do it - you're introducing oxygen and a slight risk of infection for no upshot. – Ryan Feb 3 '17 at 19:55
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Most people these days do not use secondary. It is not necessary and usually not recommended....Here's what John Palmer had to say.... https://www.homebrewersassociation.org/forum/index.php?topic=15108.msg191642#msg191642

"When and why would you need to use a secondary fermenter? First some background – I used to recommend racking a beer to a secondary fermenter. My recommendation was based on the premise that (20 years ago) larger (higher gravity) beers took longer to ferment completely, and that getting the beer off the yeast reduced the risk of yeast autolysis (ie., meaty or rubbery off-flavors) and it allowed more time for flocculation and clarification, reducing the amount of yeast and trub carryover to the bottle. Twenty years ago, a homebrewed beer typically had better flavor, or perhaps less risk of off-flavors, if it was racked off the trub and clarified before bottling. Today that is not the case.

The risk inherent to any beer transfer, whether it is fermenter-to-fermenter or fermenter-to-bottles, is oxidation and staling. Any oxygen exposure after fermentation will lead to staling, and the more exposure, and the warmer the storage temperature, the faster the beer will go stale.

Racking to a secondary fermenter used to be recommended because staling was simply a fact of life – like death and taxes. But the risk of autolysis was real and worth avoiding – like cholera. In other words, you know you are going to die eventually, but death by cholera is worth avoiding.

But then modern medicine appeared, or in our case, better yeast and better yeast-handling information. Suddenly, death by autolysis is rare for a beer because of two factors: the freshness and health of the yeast being pitched has drastically improved, and proper pitching rates are better understood. The yeast no longer drop dead and burst like Mr. Creosote from Monty Python’s The Meaning of Life when fermentation is complete – they are able to hibernate and wait for the next fermentation to come around. The beer has time to clarify in the primary fermenter without generating off-flavors. With autolysis no longer a concern, staling becomes the main problem. The shelf life of a beer can be greatly enhanced by avoiding oxygen exposure and storing the beer cold (after it has had time to carbonate).

Therefore I, and Jamil and White Labs and Wyeast Labs, do not recommend racking to a secondary fermenter for ANY ale, except when conducting an actual second fermentation, such as adding fruit or souring. Racking to prevent autolysis is not necessary, and therefore the risk of oxidation is completely avoidable. Even lagers do not require racking to a second fermenter before lagering. With the right pitching rate, using fresh healthy yeast, and proper aeration of the wort prior to pitching, the fermentation of the beer will be complete within 3-8 days (bigger = longer). This time period includes the secondary or conditioning phase of fermentation when the yeast clean up acetaldehyde and diacetyl. The real purpose of lagering a beer is to use the colder temperatures to encourage the yeast to flocculate and promote the precipitation and sedimentation of microparticles and haze.

So, the new rule of thumb: don’t rack a beer to a secondary, ever, unless you are going to conduct a secondary fermentation."

  • Denny Conn I've noticed that racking to secondary can improve clarity. I wonder if you've noticed this as well during your long history of brewing. – Ryan Feb 3 '17 at 19:59
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    Nope, not at all. Just leave it in primary longer and you'll get equal clarity. – Denny Conn Feb 3 '17 at 21:52

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