When dry hopping, should you try to submerge the hops after you add them to the secondary?
Half the hops in my last IPA weren't wet after a week, so I'm thinking they couldn't contribute much flavor.
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I generally add the dry hops to the secondary vessel before I siphon the beer in, to try to get around this issue.
I think you do want them wet, so they are really in the beer, and can leech the flavors into the liquid.
Boil or sanitize a few marbles and toss them in a hop bag with the hops. Tie off and let it sink to the bottom of your secondary vessel. The marbles will keep the hops submerged.
Once you've siphoned out the beer and it's time to remove the hops, the marbles will also make it easier to get the hops out, especially when using glass carboys.
To make things even easier (both for dry-hopping and cleanup), use multiple bags and fewer hops in each, rather than placing all of your hops in one bag.
When I use pellets for dry hopping I don't have these issues as they sink like tiny stones.
But, if you have added hops after siphoning, then giving the vessel a good slosh around can get then into the beer.
I sometimes freeze leaf hops then smash them up before using them for dry hop as they tend to wet faster as smaller pieces and you will get better aroma extraction from them. But, pellets I find best for imparting flavour.