Brand new to home-brewing. Currently making 1 gal small batches. I see a lot of recipes that call for either corn sugar or cane sugar, with honey as another alternative. How does corn sugar affect the beer vs cane sugar?
Corn sugar is a monosaccharide where cane sugar is a disaccharide. Both are entirely fermentable but the disaccharide must be cleaved first. If your yeast are stressed they'll have a easier time with the monosaccharide. Corn sugar monosaccharide is usually glucose. There is some evidence that glucose fermentations produce higher ester levels.
All things being equal, unless carefully brewed side by side one would be hard pressed to taste the differences. I find the yeast health situation to be the more important thing to keep in mind if adding sugar to a big beer late in its fermentation. In that case, I prefer monosaccharide.