tl;dr - Yes.
It is definitely possible for wine bottles to break or explode, but I've seen many more stories of homebrewers having the corks pop out. I have, however, personally witnessed a commercial "organic," "no sulfites added" wine blow out the bottom of its bottle sitting on the shelf in a grocery store. Most likely, this depends on how secure the cork (or other closure) is in the first place (PVC shrink wrap/foil or bare, etc.).
If you do a quick search on a forum like GotMead? or HomeBrewTalk for "wine bottle bombs," you can find several similar anecdotes. In fact, a recently posted mead-related incident can be seen here: A Series of Unfortunate Brewing Accidents. In that article, the homebrewer in question had a few unstabilized bottles of mead start refermenting after the temperature increased by a few degrees.
In short, if you plan on making carbonated wine, mead, or cider, make sure that it is in a container built to hold pressure (champagne bottles, beer bottles, kegs) with a closer that is equally secure (crown caps, champagne corks with cages).
If you do not plan on making carbonated wine, mead, or cider, either stabilize or make sure the fermentation is complete before bottling (no residual sugar, stable gravity readings with the ABV outside of the yeast's alcohol tolerance, etc.)
Remember, if there is residual sugar when you bottle and the yeast is still within (or even close to) its tolerance, fermentation can always start back up, even if it is months later. When in doubt, stabilizing with potassium metabisulfite and potassium sorbate should prevent this.