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5

If the starter fully fermented, most of the 1.040 should be gone; normal yeast attenuation is around 75%, so you should have 1L of 1.010 beer in the starter vessel. 1L of 1.010 beer into 19L of 1.076 OG wort would reduce the OG down to about 1.073. (76 points * 19L + 10 points * 1L) / 20L = 72.7 points = 1.073. Though if possible, you should try to ...


5

If you follow a process like this, you won't be far off: Dilute the syrup to create a 10% solution. E.g. add 10g of syrup to 90g of water and stir well. Take the specific gravity of the 10% solution, e.g. 1.030 Express this as a fraction of a 10% solution of sucrose, which has specific gravity 1.040. So, our example of 1.030 is .75 the gravity of a 10% ...


4

The key piece that's missing here is extraction efficiency - how much sugar you can get out of the grains. In the calculator, it's set at 80%, but it's doubtful you got that just from steeping and lautering in a pot. You typically need continual recirculation to get 80%+. With my old equipment (a large cooler with a hand-made series of pipes with slits.) I ...


4

You don't need a starter since you're pitching to 1/4 batch size that a whitelabs vial is good for. Normally you'd use 2-4 vials for a 20 liter batch, depending upon gravity, so that's equivalent to 1/2 to 1 a vial for a 5 liter batch. For the detailed figures, see Always making a starter vs. following package description. One way to know the OG prior to ...


3

The combination of hydrometer and refractometer readings can be used to estimate the ABV % of a finished fermentation. See the section titled Measurement of ABV in this BYO article.


3

The easiest way to determine the effect of starter gravity is to decant the starter so the amount is negligible. In addition, I've found that it makes better beer.


2

I've had this same thing happen to me before. My pre-boil gravity was one thing and the post boil gravity was actually LESS than the pre-boil. I do all grain and I've found this happens if I take my pre-boil gravity after collecting my wort WITHOUT stirring the wort in the kettle. What happens in my case is that my first runnings sit in the bottom of the ...


2

If this was a partial boil batch and you added water to top up after the boil, the problem is that you didn't get it mixed well enough before taking a reading. It's a very common problem. The wort, containing sugar, is heavier than water and sinks to the bottom of the fermener. It's very difficult to get them thoroughly mixed, so the reading you get is ...


1

No, water would bring the SG closer to 1.0, which is the SG of water.


1

You can have a lab analysis done on it, but that's not practical. Without knowing the sugar content of the pre-fermented wort, you really have no other accurate way of determining alcohol content. But you can take a couple guesses. First, examine your notes from previous and upcoming brews to determine your typical efficiency. Apply this to the recipe you ...


1

Besides the potential causes that @mdma cites (possibly mash is too thick, leading to poor contact of water with grain and poor sparging), which can be solved by having a more liquid mash (at least 0.55L of strike water per kg of grain, or 1.3 qts. per lb.), a primary cause is the fact that your efficiency tends to decline as your grain volume (OG) ...


1

Average it! Multiply your starter volume and wort volume by their original gravities respectively to produce numbers that can be combined to derive an average gravity reading from the blend. Do this by dividing the sum of the gravity-volume products by the sum of all wort: ( ( OG1 * V1 ) + ( OG2 * V2 ) ) / ( V1 + V2 ) = SG Where... OG1 is the ...


1

You are almost right; the mash gravity depends on the mash efficiency which in turn depends on the mash temperature and mash time. A higher mash temperature will result in longer sugars which are harder for the yeast to ferment. This leads to more full bodied beer. A lower mash temperature will give shorter sugars which are easy for the yeast to ferment, ...


1

Alcohol (ethanol) freezes at -114°F (-84°C) so you could freeze-distill the beer which will freeze the water, but not the alcohol, so you can separate out the alcohol and measure that. Although I believe you have to do this slowly for the alcohol to separate out, so I don't think it's workable in practice. The freezing point of beer is related to ...



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