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They sure have, at least in terms of the temperature/ABV% relationship. Figuring out the rate at which a specific volume of liquid will freeze is a much different question though, and will depend on factors like the beer container (material, geometry, wall thickness, any insulation, etc etc) and the refrigeration system (whether there's forced convection ...


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As a long-time practitioner of this method, I'd recommend waiting longer than this article suggests. For me, the real benefit of the technique is an accelerated reduction of diacetyl at the end of fermentation, since by the time esters have maxed out (more on that below) pretty much all other potential off-flavors (higher alcohols, acetaldehyde, sulfur ...


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He mentions it in the linked article: A few things we’ve learned over the last couple centuries of brewing is that yeast generally works slower at cooler temperatures and faster at warmer temperatures, most esters and phenolics are produced during the growth phase of fermentation, which in my experience lasts about 4-5 days for lager strains, and beer ...


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At the beginning of the fermentation the yeast have access to some oxygen and/or stores of the metabolites made with oxygen. This allows them to replicate a few times, so naturally that's what they do. A byproduct of this is ester production, and other stuff (acetaldehyde, diacetyl, maybe some sulfury compounds, etc) that we usually don't like in our beer. ...


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I did some research and found there actually are a number of factors influencing the production of sulfur dioxide (SO2) specifically (as opposed to H2S or DMS) that can be controlled: SO2 production is favored by higher original gravity. Basically this is because sulfite synthesis by yeast requires energy and more energy available as fermentable sugar ...


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If possible, you should always crash and decant the bland, unhopped starter beer. But especially for lagers, where the starter volume is usually larger to get a larger cell count. At the same time, ~1.7L into ~19L is only ~10%, it won't affect the batch too much. Also, lager yeasts do have a full range of flocculation characteristics, they're not ...



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