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Bitterness is not linear throughout the boil, so you cannot assume that it will be twice as bitter after 60 minutes vs. 30 minutes. I'm also not sure that you're going to get a great sense of the bitterness in the partially-boiled wort vs. the finished beer, but I don't have a really compelling argument as to why not. But I'm not understanding something ...


All hops contribute both aroma and bitterness in varying degrees. Grouping them into 4 hard categories is somewhat arbitrary. In general they are grouped as aroma vs bitterness, but if you wanted to you could simply use more "aroma hops" early in your boil and still end up more bitterness (and vice versa).


This chart shows the different components of a large variety of different hop types: (Linked file for high resolution) I found the chart on this blog post about hops but actually I originally saw it at the London Beer Lab, who do an awesome course on brewing (we were the audience for their prototype course, which was pretty cool). Basically, above the ...


The AA content of hops is seasonal, and depends a lot on the weather. What you see listed in books is "typical", but that doesn't mean it can't be higher or lower than that. You should always adjust any recipe to the AA of the hops you;re using. Don't match weights of hops, match IBU contributions.


Since you are already substituting cascade hops instead of centennial hops, you are not going to hit some pre-destined goal. So you might as well go with personal preference. If, when you drink an APA or IPA, you don't like a lingering bitter, then cut back proportionally on the bittering addition (usually the 60 minute addition). If you like the hop ...


white sage to me is the best. Ihave used it as an addative about 50-50


"Bittering hops" are those with high alpha acids that contribute more IBUs than one with less alpha acids. But a bittering hop that is not boiled for long (or added post-boil) will not contribute to high IBUs or bitterness, just aroma and flavor. You can use a so-called bittering hop for aroma and flavor and vice-versa. There may be debate on whether that ...


It just so happens that Waldo Lake Amber is my recipe. I designed that kit for NB. The technique is called First Wort Hopping and produces increased hop flavor and a smooth, mellow bitterness. Sounds like they kinda screwed up my directions. The right way to do it is to steep the grains, then when that's done and the bag with them has been removed, add ...

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