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Gypsum does two things: It releases calcium ions into the mash, which combine with phosphates from the grain to create an acid, thus acidifying the mash. It provides sulphate ions which contribute a flavour. It's widely reported that sulphates accentuate hop bitterness and give a slight saltiness to the beer. If you took all your gypsum and added it only ...


Hardness is only one component of water. You need to look at the full analysis to see what's causing it in order to know what to do about it. Then, use a water spreadsheet (I recommend Bru'nwater https://sites.google.com/site/brunwater/) to calculate how to correct for it. Your fears about water additions are unfounded. If done correctly, no off flavors ...

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