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17

If brewing all-grain, taking gravity readings after mashing allows you to calculate your mash efficiency. If your efficiency is low (meaning you're not getting good conversion), you can use this knowledge to pin down problems in your recipe, milling, and mash/sparge processes. Measuring the gravity before and after fermentation allows you to calculate the ...


12

About 80% of the sugars in the malt extract are fermentable, and about 20% are not. The main fermentables are maltose, maltriose, smaller amounts of sucrose, glucose and fructose. The remainder - about 20-25% are 20% unfermentable dextrins, the remaining 5% other less common sugars with variable fermentability by ale yeasts. Thus typical values are between ...


7

Yes. Specific gravity is calculated on relative densities (densitybeer / densitywater in the case of brewing). If you double the volume of the beer as you describe by diluting it with water, then the density will be half (roughly, not accounting for intermolecular interactions). (Dbeer / 2)/ Dwater = (Dbeer / Dwater) /2, so multiplying by 2 would restore the ...


6

Dry is the same as "not sweet". But high FG is not necessarily sweet. If the residual sugars are long-chain carbohydrates, they will contribute to body but not much to sweetness. So I'd say that low FG implies dry, but high FG does not necessarily imply sweet.


6

BE SURE to boil any water you add at this point to deoxygenate it. If you don't, the added water will oxidize your beer and promote faster staling.


5

I believe it will be possible to add extra water to decrease the ABV but is it really necessary? If so I would get purified water and for a 43L batch add a few liters to decrease the ABV. Do this in the new carboy before racking the brew into it. If it was me I would leave it though. As mentioned by others without having the exact readings it is hard to say ...


5

I have brewed many batches where I never checked the gravity in the past. You don't really need to check the gravities to make great beer. You do run the risk of not knowing when a beer is complete and maybe having overcarbonation issues in the bottle. But good fermentation practices should, normally, take care of that. However, I think that when you get ...


4

Assuming you are using the hydrometer right: It could be your efficiency in the steep. If that is the case you are working at 64% efficiency instead of 72% like the recipe says. ( 70 GU * 0.72 efficiency / 78 GU = 64.6% ) Rinse the grain bag with hot water around 170ยบ. That will get more sugar out of the grain. How much wort did you get? If you ended ...


4

You can use a wine or beer thief and a test jar to grab a sample from your carboy. I use the following one and it works great: http://www.amazon.com/Fermtech-Wine-Beer-Thief/dp/B00186ADYS This one is nice because the hydrometer fits right inside it so you don't need a test jar. I never put the sample back in, just scared of contamination. Does anybody ...


4

Well, it's either the yeast or the wort that's giving you the trouble. You can find out by doing a forced fermentation test - take a small amount of wort, and pitch a relatively large amount of yeast (e.g. 1/2 sachet of dry yeast.) Keep it at 75F or more so that the yeast ferment out any fermentable sugars. After at least 1 day, or once the yeast have ...


4

The key piece that's missing here is extraction efficiency - how much sugar you can get out of the grains. In the calculator, it's set at 80%, but it's doubtful you got that just from steeping and lautering in a pot. You typically need continual recirculation to get 80%+. With my old equipment (a large cooler with a hand-made series of pipes with slits.) I ...


3

The liquid boils off but the sugars remain. Since specific gravity is a measure of density, the wort becomes more dense when there's less liquid but the amount of sugar remains the same.


3

It's hard to get a low original gravity when brewing from an extract kit. As long as you added all the malt extract and sugar provided with the kit, and you added the correct amount of water, there's really no way for the starting gravity to be low. I can think of two possible reasons that your OG was lower than expected: you added more water than ...


3

You can dilute/blend your beer to diminish the ABV (and increase the volume). Brew Your Own magazine has a nice article on that.


3

I use a sanitized turkey baster dedicated to beer samples. Easy and cheap.


3

1.044 Final Gravity?!?! You have a severe danger of bottle bombs! For future reference, you should dissolve your sugar in some boiling water, then pour that into the bucket, then rack the beer on top of the sugar water. That ensures equal distribution. I'm afraid you are going to have problems with this batch. Probably, a lot of the bottles will be ...


3

My understanding of "synonymous" is that it means "equivalent to". Therefore clearly no, "dry" is not equivalent to "low FG" which is not equivalent to "drinkable". However, they may well be related since low FG correlates with light body which can aid in drinkability. Similarly, if you like dry beer then you'll find it drinkable. And why exclude ...


3

In my own experience, "dry" and "low FG" are completely unrelated. This surprised me at first, but there are a lot of other factors besides FG that determine the 'dryness' of the beer. Right off the bat, the amount of hop bitterness counterbalances the sweetness. Likewise, any astringent character from the mineral qualities of the water will start chipping ...


3

The words may get frequently overloaded, but they actually all mean different things. I'll attempt to explain below. Dry(ness) -- Tends to refer to the amount of detectable sweetness in the final beverage. A beer that is hardly sweet would be considered dry. A dry beer could be correlated to Low FG, as little sugar would remain in the beer to taste. Low FG ...


3

Your final gravity will be influenced by a number of things. The typical attenuation range of the yeast is just one aspect. How thick/thin and warm your mash is (or the overall fermentability of your LME or DME) will play a significant roll. Fermentation temperature and aeration of the wort before pitching will also be significant. As JackSmith stated, the ...


3

The yeast strains usually come with an apparent attenuation range, not an exact value. For instance, something like 70-75%, 67-70%, etc. I always hope to hit the lower end of that range. For example, if I start at 1.050 and use a yeast with 73-80% apparent attenuation, I expect to end up in the range of 1.010 - 1.014. Sometimes I go a point or two lower ...


3

As far as I know, you can determine the final gravity solely with a refractometer only if you know the original gravity (either with a hydrometer or the refractometer). I am a small-batch brewer, and exclusively use a refractometer for gravity measurements. A few tips: You have to calibrate your refractometer to read zero when using distilled water as ...


3

At this point you don't know if the fermentation is stuck or finished. Despite the yeast attenuation rating, it's the fermentability of the wort that determines attenuation. Alcohol tolerance is not the problem. More yeast might help or it might not. Before you do anything you should try a fast ferment test to determine if there are any more fermentable ...


3

You've sussed out the two changes from the addition of the fruit: you'll dilute the original beer, and also change its gravity, which after more fermentation will result in a new FG. Ideally you'd measure the pre-addition specific gravity, the post-addition SG, and the post-ferment FG. The difference between the OG and the pre-add SG, plus the difference ...


3

It's not really possible to answer this question without knowing how sweet the watermelon was. That is, we need to the watermelon's brix. When you added the watermelon, you added some water and some sugar. The sugar will ferment, increasing the alcohol content and the water will dilute, decreasing the alcohol content. According to this page, watermelons ...


2

it could be inefficient mashing in your minimash. Do you sparge it at all? ie when you're removing the grain bag pour a little water through the grain to try to get the remaining sugar out. It could also be you're measuring your gravity at the incorrect temperature that your hydrometer is calibrated to. Some hydrometers are calibrated to measure accurately ...


2

Theoretically, a beer could finish below 1.000 due to the alcohol in it. You'd need to have a very fermentable wort and a very attenuative yeast (or bacteria), but in theory it's possible.


2

I had a saison that finished at 1.002 that was fermented with Wyeast 3711 French Saison at about 84F. The attenuation rate of the yeast strain along with the use of fully fermentable sugars can bring your final gravity quite low. Your mash temperature will also dictate how fermentable your wort will be, a lower beta amalyes rest will produce more simple ...


2

Unfortunately, not all extracts are created the same. I think what you are seeing is that your extract is not as fermentable as the extract created by say Wyeast to give you their range of attenuation. You can easily email Wyeast or WhiteLabs to ask them about the conditions used to get the attentuation ranges. The are generally very helpful with that sort ...


2

You should always test FG before adding your priming sugar. You can use a sanitized wine thief or turkey baster to pull samples from a carboy. You'll get a better mixture if you gently pour the simple syrup into the bottom of the bottling bucket, and then rack the beer into that. The flow of the beer will mix it thoroughly, and will not introduce ...



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