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17

If brewing all-grain, taking gravity readings after mashing allows you to calculate your mash efficiency. If your efficiency is low (meaning you're not getting good conversion), you can use this knowledge to pin down problems in your recipe, milling, and mash/sparge processes. Measuring the gravity before and after fermentation allows you to calculate the ...


11

About 80% of the sugars in the malt extract are fermentable, and about 20% are not. The main fermentables are maltose, maltriose, smaller amounts of sucrose, glucose and fructose. The remainder - about 20-25% are 20% unfermentable dextrins, the remaining 5% other less common sugars with variable fermentability by ale yeasts. Thus typical values are between ...


7

Yes. Specific gravity is calculated on relative densities (densitybeer / densitywater in the case of brewing). If you double the volume of the beer as you describe by diluting it with water, then the density will be half (roughly, not accounting for intermolecular interactions). (Dbeer / 2)/ Dwater = (Dbeer / Dwater) /2, so multiplying by 2 would restore the ...


5

I believe it will be possible to add extra water to decrease the ABV but is it really necessary? If so I would get purified water and for a 43L batch add a few liters to decrease the ABV. Do this in the new carboy before racking the brew into it. If it was me I would leave it though. As mentioned by others without having the exact readings it is hard to say ...


5

I have brewed many batches where I never checked the gravity in the past. You don't really need to check the gravities to make great beer. You do run the risk of not knowing when a beer is complete and maybe having overcarbonation issues in the bottle. But good fermentation practices should, normally, take care of that. However, I think that when you get ...


4

Assuming you are using the hydrometer right: It could be your efficiency in the steep. If that is the case you are working at 64% efficiency instead of 72% like the recipe says. ( 70 GU * 0.72 efficiency / 78 GU = 64.6% ) Rinse the grain bag with hot water around 170º. That will get more sugar out of the grain. How much wort did you get? If you ended ...


4

You can use a wine or beer thief and a test jar to grab a sample from your carboy. I use the following one and it works great: http://www.amazon.com/Fermtech-Wine-Beer-Thief/dp/B00186ADYS This one is nice because the hydrometer fits right inside it so you don't need a test jar. I never put the sample back in, just scared of contamination. Does anybody ...


4

Well, it's either the yeast or the wort that's giving you the trouble. You can find out by doing a forced fermentation test - take a small amount of wort, and pitch a relatively large amount of yeast (e.g. 1/2 sachet of dry yeast.) Keep it at 75F or more so that the yeast ferment out any fermentable sugars. After at least 1 day, or once the yeast have ...


4

The key piece that's missing here is extraction efficiency - how much sugar you can get out of the grains. In the calculator, it's set at 80%, but it's doubtful you got that just from steeping and lautering in a pot. You typically need continual recirculation to get 80%+. With my old equipment (a large cooler with a hand-made series of pipes with slits.) I ...


3

As far as I know, you can determine the final gravity solely with a refractometer only if you know the original gravity (either with a hydrometer or the refractometer). I am a small-batch brewer, and exclusively use a refractometer for gravity measurements. A few tips: You have to calibrate your refractometer to read zero when using distilled water as ...


3

1.044 Final Gravity?!?! You have a severe danger of bottle bombs! For future reference, you should dissolve your sugar in some boiling water, then pour that into the bucket, then rack the beer on top of the sugar water. That ensures equal distribution. I'm afraid you are going to have problems with this batch. Probably, a lot of the bottles will be ...


3

It's hard to get a low original gravity when brewing from an extract kit. As long as you added all the malt extract and sugar provided with the kit, and you added the correct amount of water, there's really no way for the starting gravity to be low. I can think of two possible reasons that your OG was lower than expected: you added more water than ...


3

My understanding of "synonymous" is that it means "equivalent to". Therefore clearly no, "dry" is not equivalent to "low FG" which is not equivalent to "drinkable". However, they may well be related since low FG correlates with light body which can aid in drinkability. Similarly, if you like dry beer then you'll find it drinkable. And why exclude ...


3

In my own experience, "dry" and "low FG" are completely unrelated. This surprised me at first, but there are a lot of other factors besides FG that determine the 'dryness' of the beer. Right off the bat, the amount of hop bitterness counterbalances the sweetness. Likewise, any astringent character from the mineral qualities of the water will start chipping ...


3

The words may get frequently overloaded, but they actually all mean different things. I'll attempt to explain below. Dry(ness) -- Tends to refer to the amount of detectable sweetness in the final beverage. A beer that is hardly sweet would be considered dry. A dry beer could be correlated to Low FG, as little sugar would remain in the beer to taste. Low FG ...


3

Your final gravity will be influenced by a number of things. The typical attenuation range of the yeast is just one aspect. How thick/thin and warm your mash is (or the overall fermentability of your LME or DME) will play a significant roll. Fermentation temperature and aeration of the wort before pitching will also be significant. As JackSmith stated, the ...


3

The yeast strains usually come with an apparent attenuation range, not an exact value. For instance, something like 70-75%, 67-70%, etc. I always hope to hit the lower end of that range. For example, if I start at 1.050 and use a yeast with 73-80% apparent attenuation, I expect to end up in the range of 1.010 - 1.014. Sometimes I go a point or two lower ...


3

At this point you don't know if the fermentation is stuck or finished. Despite the yeast attenuation rating, it's the fermentability of the wort that determines attenuation. Alcohol tolerance is not the problem. More yeast might help or it might not. Before you do anything you should try a fast ferment test to determine if there are any more fermentable ...


3

You've sussed out the two changes from the addition of the fruit: you'll dilute the original beer, and also change its gravity, which after more fermentation will result in a new FG. Ideally you'd measure the pre-addition specific gravity, the post-addition SG, and the post-ferment FG. The difference between the OG and the pre-add SG, plus the difference ...


3

It's not really possible to answer this question without knowing how sweet the watermelon was. That is, we need to the watermelon's brix. When you added the watermelon, you added some water and some sugar. The sugar will ferment, increasing the alcohol content and the water will dilute, decreasing the alcohol content. According to this page, watermelons ...


2

it could be inefficient mashing in your minimash. Do you sparge it at all? ie when you're removing the grain bag pour a little water through the grain to try to get the remaining sugar out. It could also be you're measuring your gravity at the incorrect temperature that your hydrometer is calibrated to. Some hydrometers are calibrated to measure accurately ...


2

I had a saison that finished at 1.002 that was fermented with Wyeast 3711 French Saison at about 84F. The attenuation rate of the yeast strain along with the use of fully fermentable sugars can bring your final gravity quite low. Your mash temperature will also dictate how fermentable your wort will be, a lower beta amalyes rest will produce more simple ...


2

Unfortunately, not all extracts are created the same. I think what you are seeing is that your extract is not as fermentable as the extract created by say Wyeast to give you their range of attenuation. You can easily email Wyeast or WhiteLabs to ask them about the conditions used to get the attentuation ranges. The are generally very helpful with that sort ...


2

Typically with a kit if you used the proper amounts of water/sugar/extract ratio your OG will be right on. Incomplete mixing of the wort doesn't seem like a problem considering you shook the fermenter well. In this video at 25:25 Owen Lingley from Wyeast Laboratories says that only 45 seconds vigorously shaking a carboy will oxoginate the wort to acceptable ...


2

You should always test FG before adding your priming sugar. You can use a sanitized wine thief or turkey baster to pull samples from a carboy. You'll get a better mixture if you gently pour the simple syrup into the bottom of the bottling bucket, and then rack the beer into that. The flow of the beer will mix it thoroughly, and will not introduce ...


2

First of all, don't trust ANY software to accurately predict FG. All it's doing is making a guess based on the attenuation rating of the yeast. That number is meant for comparing one strain to another using a standardized wort, not as a way of predicting the attenuation you might get. The composition and fermentbaility of the wort is the main determining ...


2

A few thoughts, and I hope I can answer your question in the process: The only fermentables to speak of will be your malt extracts — the other grain is just adjuncts and will not contribute a significant amount of long-chain sugars for fermentation. So you can pretty much rule out the mash. But as to your malt extract, is it fresh? Do you have any reason ...


1

Perhaps, but I have tried this with a couple of online calculators and with brewtarget and each time, the calculated final gravity is significantly lower than my actual hydrometer reading. I finally gave up. I actually find the hydrometer a bit simpler for final gravity anyway. The refractometer with ATC comes in handy with hot first and second runnings and ...


1

Yes, but you have to factor in the alcohol so you'll need a refractometer adjustment calculator. Northern Brewer has one on their website and there are other online calculators as well. But no two calculators seem to agree perfectly. Personally, if I'm in the ballpark I'm happy. But if you want to be certain of getting the most accurate measurement possible ...


1

Some elements in the chocolate are dispersed throughout the beer, so it does affect the FG in principle, but not by any appreciable amount. 8oz in 5 gallons would be much less than 1 gravity point. It could be a stuck ferment, or that your FG realy is 1.022 due to unfermentables. Try rousing the yeast a little and raising the temperature by 5F/2C which may ...



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