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8

For skunked beer, we're worried about Violet and UV light. There's a lot of information available on this, so I won't go into that science. Basically, we want to limit as much light less than 500nm as possible and all light under 400nm (UV) if possible. Halogen bulbs follow a similar pattern to incandescent bulbs (ref). This chart compares different bulbs, ...


8

Headspace in the carboy is nice to avoid this, but ultimately, a blow-off tube is the answer. By switching out the airlocks, you did the right thing, and ultimately, as long as you didn't let it sit exposed for a long period of time (in the realm of 20+ minutes), the likelihood of infection isn't high. Plus, the krausen (foamy stuff that sits on top of the ...


7

Here is a link to an overview of sugars in beer I have brewed with multiple sugars before but never maple and I'm not certain what golden syrup is. Honey is a very common ingredient. In my uses it leaves a mild honey flavor but ferments out almost completely. I've used brown sugar and it adds a sweetness but I personally feel the raw demerara sugar leaves a ...


5

Don't worry have a homebrew. It is very unlikely that a temperature change from 80-72 would shock the yeast. People like to ferment at lower temperatures because it produces less byproducts that add off flavors to beer. Additionally, 6 hours for the temperature change is definitely not a quick temperature change in the time scale of yeast. Agreed only a ...


5

I would advise trying to siphon first. You can use one siphon on multiple carboys. This is a much more economical option to making or converting multiple glass secondary fermenters to have a spigot. Of course, thus assumes that you have more than one brew going at once. As you're new, this is mere conjecture. However, if you plan on being both wine and ...


5

The only issue with the grommet falling in is possible contamination depending on if there were any organisms on it (probably) and how strong your ferment is - sounds like you're at low or high krausen so you should be ok. The larger your yeast population and stronger it is, the greater chance they'll outcompete anything that gets in there at this stage. You ...


5

Given the recipe, that's exactly the sort of flavour I'd expect. I've never made this beverage, but I've made sauerkraut and it's done in an almost identical way except using cabbage instead of beets. The fermentation is bacterial, and lactobacilli play a predominant role. These bacteria produce lactic acid which is what makes sauerkraut sour, and presumably ...


5

Sorry to say that looks like the beginning of a pellicle, meaning your beer is infected. But if you drink it quickly, you may avoid the worst of it. Best case, it might even taste good! And NEVER put that heater in your beer! Put the beer in a tub of water and put the heater in the water.


5

First, there is almost never a need to use a secondary fermenter unless you add something to the beer that produces a true secondary fermentation. The idea of using a secondary on a regular basis comes from the commercial brewing industry. The fermenters homebrewers use are far smaller and the risk of autolysis is virtually nonexistent, unlike commercial ...


4

Likely late in the game now, but you can also put oak chips on a sanitized cooking sheet at 200F or so and leave in the oven for 15 minutes or so. This will sanitize the chips, and subtly brings out some of the flavour, but not too much tannic or other astringent flavours. Essentially you are pasteurizing the oak chips by heating them to 138F (min), before ...


4

I'd be willing to bet that the high FG was due to insufficient yeast pitching. By itself, most yeast can handle up to 13% ABV, so it isn't the intolerance of your alcohol level. I would recommend doing a yeast starter for brews this high in gravity (a little late now obviously). In your situation, I would consider pitching another packet of yeast (see the ...


4

In short, no, not if you're using an airlock. You need pressure to reach the levels of carbonation required. With an airlock, you only get atmospheric pressure, so the pressure inside is the same outside. Carbonation is measured in volumes of CO2. 1 Volume of CO2 is the same volume of CO2 as beer - 2 volumes would be twice the volume of CO2 as beer at ...


4

Using sorbate is the only way to have a chance of stropping fermentation and even that can be unreliable. If you keg rather than bottle, attempting to stop fermentation is less dangerous since a keg won't explode like bottles can. As has been said, the real solution is to brew the beer you want to drink.


4

Well, here's my list of why it's a bad idea.... You will weaken the carboy and increase the risk of it breaking. You need to be able to keep the spigot sanitized throughout fermentation. Have you priced having custom carboys made? It's just unnecessary...siphoning isn't that hard to do. What you're looking at is dangerous, expensive and ...


4

In short: use the same amount of yeast. You should use the correct amount of yeast for 5 gallons, either split between the two cornies or added to the batch before you split it. Dry yeast packets have (more than) enough cells for a 5 gallon batch. Liquid yeast smack packs generally do not have enough cells for 5 gallons of wort, which is why starters are ...


4

Sounds like a vigorous, but otherwise normal fermentation. Rack to secondary, if that's your process, or leave it in the carboy for another week or two before bottling. The krausen residue on the walls of the carboy won't affect the final beer. In the future you might consider using a blow-off tube instead of an airlock.


4

Your options are: Leave it: You have already put the effort in to make the brew so I would say just leave it until it is ready to bottle. Buy a second fermenter: then transfer the remaining beer to it after it has been cleaned and sterilized. Fix the leak: Depending on the size of the leak you could try to stem the flow with either vasonline, tape it up, ...


4

Well, it's either the yeast or the wort that's giving you the trouble. You can find out by doing a forced fermentation test - take a small amount of wort, and pitch a relatively large amount of yeast (e.g. 1/2 sachet of dry yeast.) Keep it at 75F or more so that the yeast ferment out any fermentable sugars. After at least 1 day, or once the yeast have ...


4

It sounds like you underpitched by quite a large amount. As for options, you have some: Pitch an ale yeast. You'll want to bring the temperature up to at least 17 C to keep the yeast happy. You'll end up with an ale, not a lager, but still a good beer. Raise the temperature for a short while. If you can bring the temperature up to 15 C, you should start to ...


4

Using any of those things to filter beer will badly oxidize it and ruin the flavor. I clear beer with time and cold temperature. A couple months at 35F will clear just about any beer. You can also use things like gelatin, Polyclar, or Biofine. If you want to filter you needs kegs and a CO2 setup to push the beer so you can do it in an enclosed manner and ...


4

Glass carboys are not rated for pressure, I would definitely not recommend trying it there. If fermenting or finishing in a metal vessel (like a corny keg), you can use a spunding valve to control the amount of pressure in the keg to force carbonation, similar to actively adding CO₂ to the keg to force carbonate after fermentation. It's a practice born out ...


3

I too was curious about this the other day. Turns out for five gallons/18.9 L of 1.060 wort at 75% apparent attenuation, 449.1 L/ 15.86 cubic feet/ 118.64 gal of CO2 is produced (standard temperature and pressure. This amounts to 0.88 kg/ 1.94 lb of CO2! I have a few charts for different gravities and apparent attenuations at my blog post about it. I ...


3

It's certainly possible that the banana esters are due to warm fermentation temperature. After sanitation, I'd argue that the most important step in brewing is fermentation temperature. You want both the correct temperature for your yeast (each yeast varies so check the manufacturer), and a consistent temperature. The method you mentioned helps primarily ...


3

For this situation, you may want to consider yeast strains where extra phenol and ester production due to a stressful environment is considered a good thing in the final product. Typically Belgian yeast strains are more tolerable of stressful environments, in fact some brewers intentionally raise the temperature of their belgian ales in order to get the ...


3

Here is some great information about beer skunking based upon wavelengths of light (http://www.safespectrum.com/applications_beer_wine.php). UV is the strongest light source that will cause beer skunking. However visible light, specifically anything under 500nm or thereabouts, are threats for beer skunking. And from this page ...


3

It's hard to get a low original gravity when brewing from an extract kit. As long as you added all the malt extract and sugar provided with the kit, and you added the correct amount of water, there's really no way for the starting gravity to be low. I can think of two possible reasons that your OG was lower than expected: you added more water than ...


3

Unfortunately there's not going to be a single right answer since the amount of sediment depends a lot on how much yeast there is, which is a factor of the batch size, O.G., yeast health, etc. Also there may be more or less hot and cold break depending on the rest of your brew process. If possible I would try to brew a typical batch and then see how bit ...


3

Theoretically, yes, your beer could be drinkable after only 8 days. Meaning, nothing is going to stop you from going into bottles or kegs at the 8 day mark, and what you will be consuming will by definition be beer. Hopefully fermentation completed, and you don't have bottle bombs. Using the term "green" flavors is a very subjective term, for both ...


3

After only a few days in primary, there's almost certainly enough yeast suspended in the beer to ferment the sugars in the fruit. There are a couple exceptions to this rule: Very high gravity beers. The high alcohol levels in the finished beer are toxic to yeast. Beers that have aged for many months. Most of the yeast will have precipitated ot. In ...


3

The two you will want to use are either Wyeast 3763 Roeselare blend, or WLP655 Belgian Sour mix. If you want to get real squirrely, follow the Mad Fermentationist's lead and go grab a (fresh) bottle or two of your favorite sours from the store, smoothly pour out all but the last half inch of the bottle, swirl the dregs settled at the bottom of the bottle, ...



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