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9

I'm an inexperienced ciderist and I've been researching this very question for around two months. Many renowned cideries use champagne yeast. The thing to remember here is that champagne yeast is very aggressive and should ferment your must to total dryness (little/no sugar remaining, specific gravity below 1.000) So you may need to back-sweeten to achieve ...


6

2 cups of sugar weighs around 440g, so let's call that 1 pound. Sugar provides 46 points of gravity, per pound, per gallon. 1 pound of sugar in 2 litres (~ 0.5 gallon) would contribute 92 points of gravity. Apple juice is typically around 1.060. Adding the 92 points from the sugar addition yields an estimated starting gravity of 1.152. To get the 1.21 ...


6

Out of my 12-13 brews I have almost always had condensation on the inside of the lid of the fermentation bucket. I have had a thermometer inside the liquid during fermentation, and one on the outside and it does differ quite a bit. Basically the fermentation causes heat => condensation. Totally normal!


4

The inward pressure is caused by the temperature of the air in the carboy being colder than the air outside and/or increases in atmospheric pressure - both will cause the pressure inside the carboy to be less than the pressure outside. This doesn't indicate that there is anything wrong with your brew.


4

I've used champagne yeast, but I find it dries the cider out too much. To reach an acceptable level of residual sweetness you have to back sweeten. That means either disabling the yeast (potassium sorbate, pasteurization, or cold crashing) and then carbonating and sweetening. Or you could add sweetener to each glass you pour. Either way, it's a PITA. I've ...


4

Dry apple cider usually takes several months to a year in the bottle to smooth out. I would not concern myself much with how it tasted at 4 weeks. If you want a sweeter cider that is ready to drink in 4-5 weeks, take a look at my answer in this question: Sweet sparkling cider without pasteurizing, sulphites or lactose Make a "graff" which is a malted ...


3

It's tasting like wine because there are almost no sugars left in the cider. With no sugar, you really notice the acidity in cider which makes it taste more like wine. (I would say it's more like white wine than, red, but that's subjective). You could try sweetening the it to see if that makes it taste more like cider, and less like wine. Buy a can of apple ...


3

I make semi sweet sparkling cider often. After trying a few different types, I find that Danstar Nottingham is the very best. I make mine with table sugar and treetop pasteurized apple juice from Costco. Ferment it out to ~1.010 in primary, bottle (prime with table sugar as you would a pale ale) and then cold crash or pasteurize within about 10 days (when it ...


3

Pectic enzymes and the polysaccharide that they break down, pectin, are naturally occurring in apples. To get them to break down your apples for juice, though, you would need to wait for the fruit to ripen to the brink of rotting. In your example, you would need to add pectic enzymes to the apples. The enzymes will break down the pectin and probably other ...


3

If the cider is really turning into vinegar, than you've got a bacterial infection, probably acetobacter. This bacteria will metabolize alcohol into acetic acid. Acetobacter is present in small quantities in apple juice. It's also carried by fruit flies. There are three things you can do to fix this. Observe proper sanitation technique. Anything the ...


2

Even with champagne yeast, fermentation shouldn't take more than a couple of days to complete fully. At the eighteen day mark, what you're seeing is degassing of the cider, where residual CO2 from the fermentation is escaping the liquid, not fermentation. At this point, your cider has complete fermentation, and should be aged as necessary before being ...


2

If they are the same volume then there's probably not much in it. But I would imagine the pail to have more volume than the barrel. For primary fermentation, you need about 1/3 additional volume in the fermentor as headspace. So if you are fermenting 5 gallons, you should aim for a fermentor that's 7-8 gallons in size. The headspace is necessary since the ...


2

You can use cider yeast, ale yeast or champagne yeast. Most homebrew shops carry all of these. Dry versions are the easiest to work with, but you can use liquid as well. They are all generally formulated for 5 gal batches, so try to use a little less than half. For dry, you can pour the grains out into a dark bowl and then try to separate, or use a precision ...


2

Use either beer or champagne bottles. Wine bottles are not designed to withstand the pressure and coupe explode. Beer bottles will be easier to cap. If you use the champagne bottles, you'll need to either buy or rent a corker. Corking is more hassle than capping, so unless you prefer the champagne bottles for presentation, I'd go the easy route. I've ...


2

I don't think that it will change from wine taste to cider taste. I have done the same thing using Lalvin EC1118 yeast which turned out to taste like wine. What is happening is the yeast had eaten all of the sugars in the cider giving it a higher alcohol content and the wine taste. If you used a different yeast then some of the sugars would have been left ...


2

The preferred choice of pears for making cider (or "perry") are collectively known as "perry pears". 'Abate Fetel', AKA 'Abbé Fetel', does not fall into this group. Abate Fetel is commonly described as "more sweet" than many other varieties, and because of this it is popular as one to eat rather than use for cider. The bitterness you tasted is more likely ...


2

Yes. I've done this before with no ill effects. The apples will oxidize and turn brown over night but this doesn't affect the flavor of the juice. As long as you keep the pulp cool, no spontaneous fermentation will occur. I kept mine at a controlled 32 F., but anywhere below 50 F. should be fine for overnight.


1

The safest thing, though it's a bit of additional work, is to sweeten the cider in the glass. Put an ounce or two of concentrated apple juice in the bottom of your glass before pouring a bottle of cider. This technique adds a fresh apple taste, doesn't introduce any artificial sweetener off flavours, doesn't involve chemical stabilizers, and has no risk ...


1

Any fermentable sugar you add will convert to alcohol and in turn create CO2. Any non-fermentable sweetner is a gamble on off flavors. A suggestion would be to allow it to finish dry, add a dose of potassium sorbate to prevent refermentation, add a tested amount of apple juice concentrate to your liking for sweetness, keg and force carbonate the batch. ...


1

If you take gravity readings, you'll notice that the final gravity is extremely low. Cider is notorious for fermenting very low, and you're adding to it by tossing in sugars which are 100% fermentable (meaning that 100% of the sweetness will ferment out). The reason it is "watery" on your palette is because there is no sweetness. I'd be willing to be you ...


1

My question is answered in the comments. I failed to compensate for the alcohol on the final refractometer reading. The answer is that the cider is done fermenting, having finished at around FG = 1.002. (For some reason I was mentally confusing wort correction factor that applies to beer but not fruit juices, as researched by Sean Terrill, with correction ...


1

All my ciders ferment dry, at or less then 1.000. Your temps need to be at least in the mid 60F for fermentation to continue. Once that is complete, the yeast will drop out over a month or so or you can use any number of finings to help it clear. I age my ciders for a year before bottling, age will make them smoother and I have found that the apple flavors ...


1

The sugar in apple juice is almost entirely fermentable, so most ciders finish fermenting with a specific gravity near 1.000. If you used a wine yeast, you can expect a very dry finished cider. Ale yeast flocculates sooner, and can leave some small amount of residual sugar. Regardless, your gravities are high enough that I'd say your cider is not done ...


1

The process of freeze distillation exploits the difference in freezing points of water and ethanol. Wikipedia has a good article that explains the process. The short explanation is that the frozen portion of the liquid has a lower concentration of alcohol than the liquid portion. By removing the ice, you can thereby increase the concentration of alcohol in ...


1

The test for acetobacter is simple: smell whatever's coming out of the airlock on your fermenter. If it smells like vinegar, you've got an infection :). For a fermentation in progress, there's only a couple of options. You could pasteurize the whole batch, which would kill off bacteria as well as the yeast, so you'd have to repitch your yeast. Another ...


1

Alcohol (ethanol) freezes at -114°F (-84°C) so you could freeze-distill the beer which will freeze the water, but not the alcohol, so you can separate out the alcohol and measure that. Although I believe you have to do this slowly for the alcohol to separate out, so I don't think it's workable in practice. The freezing point of beer is related to ...


1

Unless it's infected, definitely drinkable. More under the hard cider category. I guess you could say it's an apple wine, but like barely wines they are usually above 10% ABV. You normally shouldn't see any weird looking crusts or floating material depending on the yeast you used. I would swirl the cider around everyday to help keep the yeast in ...


1

Did a blackberry cider with just blackberries not that long ago. Unfortunately don't remember the brix reading but guessing your raspberries have similar or more sugars. We froze the blackberries to help break them up and get the juice flowing. We then pressed them for the juice. If you know someone with a cider press you could use that but be warned the ...


1

There certainly will be sugars to ferment in blackberries. What I'd recommend is press the berries, and take a reading using your hydrometer. Try and shoot for something between 1.042 - 1.050. That should get you between 4%-5% ABV. If you don't get that high, which you should be able to do rather easily, toss in some brown sugar, or some corn sugar, and ...


1

Without a refractometer your only option is really to press enough berries to test gravity, which will get you ballpark on ABV. Then add sugar or dilute to your target ABV. You would also then know how much juice to expect from (X)Lbs of berries. With all fruit, sugar content and amount of juice is very much dependent on your specific berries.



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