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5

The core question is … Why? Different ions lead to different perceived properties in the finished beer; for one example: higher concentrations of chloride emphasize malt character, whereas higher concentrations of sulfate emphasize hop character and dryness. When? Both in the mash and in the sparge water, mostly based on the ratio in volume, with some ...


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Most of the heavy duty brewing chemistry books I know of are really aimed at commercial brewers and may be more or less relevant to homebrewers. That said, look for "Principles of Brewing Science" by George Fix, "New Brewing Lager Beer" by Greg Noonan, "Brewing Science and Practice" by Briggs, and books by Narziss or de Clerck. Pretty heavy duty science! ...


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Your brew will definite taste salty with that quantity of minerals added. I would use a third of that amount. 150ppm calcium and 250ppm sulphates is really the upper limit of what you can comfortably use in the beer, and you will still taste a little salt up front, but often it goes with the style. Here are some guidelines from the HBT wiki, ...


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Whether or not they're really necessary depends on the water you have and the beer you want to brew. You need to start by getting an analysis of your water. Some water districts provide all the info you need, but many of them don't. If not, an excellent resource is wardlab.com. Get test W-6. As the what the info means and how you need to adjust your ...


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There are 2 reasons to adjust your water...to get the proper pH and to add minerals necessary for yeast health and beer flavor. To do the former, you can simply measure the pH with a meter or papers, then empirically add salts until you achieve the desired pH. You don't pretreat the water because it's the mash pH you're concerned with, not the water pH. In ...


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According to this professor at UNC, they make the extract with one pepper. For the calculation I'll assume that your beer can extract capsaicin from the pepper you use as efficiently as the lab extract (which is most likely not true, but it gives you a base to start from). This calculation is just a shot in the dark, but it makes sense to me: First, 1 ...


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Mashing shouldn't be affected by the altitude. However, hop utilization at lower temperatures is fairly significant. Ray Daniels republished a correction factor in homebrewdigest here. Depending on what part of Denver you live, you'll see about an 18% - 20% reduction in utilization versus that at sea level. The biggest difference I noticed brewing in ...


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Martin Brungard's excellent water spreadsheet (free at sites.google.com/site/brunwater/) not only will help you calculate what type of water you need for a particular beer, it also has a great section on water in general that should answer many of your questions. Your city water report may not give you all the info you need. For a complete analysis that ...


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The process is called nucleation. At the microscopic level the surface of the sugar is very rough. This roughness creates a place for the CO2 dissolved in the liquid to force itself out of solution and appear as bubbles. Its the same principle that applies to etching in glassware to help promote the appearance of bubbles in the beer. It can also be debated ...


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The bubbles in beer (and other fizzy drinks) only form when the CO2 has particles to attach to. (Related phenomenon occur in cloud formation and boiling water, among other things.) This causes a chain reaction where more CO2 is attracted, and bubbles are formed. When you add sugar to the beer, suddenly there's a lot more for the CO2 to grab on to. The reason ...


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Yes and no. Anything that absorbs a liquid that is not clear will also absorb the liquid's color, so yes. If you were to use a pH strip to absorb a wort solution that is high in the SRM scale, it will also absorb that wort's color as well. With that said, the amount of solution it is absorbing pales in comparison (hardy-har-har) to what you would pour in ...


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There are a lot chemical compounds that contribute to the overall taste/aroma/etc of a beer let alone the proportions of each said compounds. Unless those 32 tests are incredibly comprehensive, I am guessing it could probably at only guess at beer category. The yeast make up around 600 chemical compounds alone. Most of those compounds are barely perceivable ...


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Also, don't forget "Yeast" by Chris White and Jamil Zainasheff! Great practical guide for homebrewers, but they also go into some light organic chemistry of yeast cell health, behavior, reproduction/budding, etc.


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I've not brewed a maibock, but I've brewed plenty of Munich Helles which the BJCP says the maibock is a stronger version of. Since it's a malt-forward style, mostly on account of the large amount of malt and proportinally less hops. I would use a neutral profile or one that accentuates the malt, and achieve the hop balance in the quantity of hops used, ...


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The spreadsheet gives color ranges for "yellow" and "amber", so after you put your recipe together you select the color profile. Malty or balanced will depend on the recipe, also. In general, though, I think you could go with either and be OK.


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Using campden is less expensive, faster, and more effective than using a filter. Basically, there is no sulfite left. According to BYO "The reaction converts chlorine into chloride and the sulfite is converted to sulfate." (http://www.byo.com/stories/wizard/article/section/121-mr-wizard/475-clearing-chloramine-a-historical-hopping-mr-wizard).


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Alkalinity really doesn't apply in the discussion of wort since the pH of wort should be below 7 thus making it an acidic solution. Most of the discussion of pH during fermentation revolves around the yeast ability to reduce the pH and the available buffering materials present such as FAN(free available nitorgen). During the fermentation process organic ...



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