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13

The caps are not perfectly smooth - they contain nucleation points, imperfections or dirt along the surface, where a bubble could form (similar to how boils are formed at nucleation points when heating water). As the cold water heats up, dissolved gasses are forced out of solution. Some of this gas dissipates, but some of it will attach to the nucleation ...


8

You will need to add the right amount of priming sugar to carbonate the beer in the bottles. There are lots of online priming sugar calculators. In theory, you could bottle the beer before fermentation had completed, and let the remaining sugars carbonate the beer, but this would be very hard to do right. If you bottle with too much residual sugar, your ...


5

You will need to add priming sugar if the beer has reached its terminal gravity with the yeast being used. In this example, despite the 80% attenuation the remaining 20% is not usually fermentable sugars. Its comprised of protein, dextrans and other molecules in solution that are largely ignored by your primary yeast strain. Lastly, reported attenuation ...


5

Different yeast strains can look a little different in the bottle as well. One characteristic of yeast is how well it "compacts" at the bottom of the fermentor or bottle. Some strains, like English Ale yeasts, are known for creating a very tight, compacted sediment, whereas others leave the yeast cake much more "fluffy". And yes, the yeast caked that you ...


5

Overview You carbonate partially filled bottles as if the bottle were full of beer, so if you have 1 liter of beer in a 3 liter bottle, you carbonate as if you had 3 liters of beer. Here's why. The amount of carbonation is measured by the equivalent volumes of CO2 dissolved in the beer. So a beer carbonated to 2.5 vols, has 2.5 times the volume of CO2 ...


4

Yes, there is a potential risk of bottle bombs, as with any incomplete ferment. The residual fermentables can be fermented by the remaining yeast in the bottle along with the priming sugar and produce more CO2 than intended. Ideally you should cold crash only after you are sure primary is complete. Many brewers simply leave the beer in primary for at least 2 ...


4

Given the time factor, and that it has lost it's body, I would bet on contamination here. While a white ring in the bottle is a typical indicator for contamination, it isn't a necessary factor. One other thing to try is to degass some of the beer by stirring/sloshing in a large container and then take a gravity reading. My guess is that it's below 1.007, ...


4

If all your bottles are overcarbonated my guess would be that you didn't hit your terminal gravity and bottled too soon. I don't know yoour recipe but an FG of 1.014 seems a bit high to me with an 1.048 OG using wlp001. If some bottles are undercarbonated you probably didn't mix your priming sugar properly into the beer. Infected bottles usually have a ...


4

One week is Usually enough time to finish carbonating, however I've found that you get much better results if you wait at least two weeks. Bottle bombs are typically the result of one of three things Incomplete Fermentation Infection Too much bottling sugar If you made sure fermentation was complete, had no signs of infection and made sure you used the ...


4

You don't need to worry about "saving" the batch. Even if you left them in the fridge they'd still carb, just very slowly. It might take months. But there's absolutely nothing wrong with taking them out of the fridge for a couple weeks to carb, then returning them to the fridge once the process is complete.


3

Yes, the process sounds reasonable, at least to an extent. The purpose of storing them at room temp is to allow refermentation to create carbonation. Then, ideally, you would keep them at 32-35 for two months to allow the beer to lager and the flavor to smooth out. An even better course of action would be to transfer to a secondary, keep that at 32-35 for ...


3

The yeast will still carbonate at fridge temperatures; just very slowly. Think months instead of weeks. I presume you put the beer in the fridge as you want to start trying to drink them. My advice would be to take your beer out of the fridge, and let them warm up to room temperature (65-75 degrees), and just stick them in a closet for a a few weeks. If you ...


3

In your case, I believe you are asking whether you can bottle without adding anything and expect the beer to carbonate based on residual sugar -- on that point, yes, you do need to add some sort of fermentable substance for the yeast to produce the CO2 for in-bottle carbonation. But for the record, if we read your question literally, then no -- there are ...


3

You may or may not need extra time, but my experience is that it never hurts to give the beer more time. 4-5 weeks will be fine. The best thing to do would be to start taking gravity readings after 3-4 weeks and taste the sample. Between the gravity and the taste, you should be able to tell when it's done.


3

I believe you are detecting the sulfur produced by the yeast. Hefe or Wit yeast in wheat beers can absolutely produce this compound, so its not unusual to encounter. I've had it appear a few times before, and I believe it fades out over time. I mostly keg, but I can recall getting strong sulfur production in a Hefe with WLP351, which was bottled and seemed ...


3

I can't speak from experience, but by putting the bottles in the fridge, the yeast isn't dead, merely dormant or slowed down. I'd take them out, let them warm up to room temperatures, hold them upside down while swirling to get the slurry off the bottoms of the bottles, turn them right-side up, and store them back away again. As long as you didn't go too ...


3

A typical 20 liter batch uses around 120g of table sugar, or 6g per liter. One teaspoon of sugar is about 4.2g. So when you used 0.5tsp in 750ml that's 2.1/0.750 = 2.8 grams per liter, which is less than half the typical 6 grams per liter. For 1.5tsp in 1250ml, that's 1.5*4.2/1.25 = 5g/l so much closer, but still undercarbonated - it's quite hard to measure ...


2

If the beer has not fermented in the 3 weeks since bottling, it's not likely to kick off any time soon. Assuming that the beer is not excessively high in alcohol, you should add more yeast to the bottles to initiate fermentation. Get yourself a packet of dry yeast (check the manufacture date or expiry date to be sure it's fresh yeast). Uncap the bottles ...


2

The simple answer is yes: the yeast will actively be fermenting in your bottle, which will contribute to the flavor. However, the effect on the overall flavor will be very very small. I've read that some commercial breweries actually bottle condition with different strains of yeast, so as not to allow harvesting of their proprietary strains that do the main ...


2

Yes, it is standard to add sugar for priming, as most beers are fermented to completion before bottling. The chocolate roasted malt does not have extra sugars, exactly. The kilning process is going to convert some sugars, caramelize some and also produce some other color and flavor compounds, but those sugars are going to be present (and some unfermentable) ...


2

The shortest time I've ever given a beer from grain to glass (including 2 days of forced carbonation) was 19 days, and it was a 1.087 Imperial IPA. That said, I do recall it tasting better after a week in the keg, and the malt bill was a 50/50 split of American and English 2-row, so nothing fancy aside from the tremendous amount of hops. In my experience, ...


2

@nhunsaker this sounds pretty standard to me. Most instructions on a beer kit will get you to prime the bottles with sugar for carbonation, then to store them in a warmer place so the carbonation process can start to take place. Then you are told to leave the bottles for two weeks in a cooler place. After that you can put them in the fridge then drink ...


2

Hehe, yeah, 10 days very unlikely to be enough time for fermentation to complete and is less than the "old school" method of 7 days primary, 7 days secondary, 2 weeks bottling. I once (notice the "once") bottled after 9 days because I was leaving on a trip and wanted the beer to be done when I returned. Although the gravity was close to where I thought it ...


1

I buy extract kits complete with instructions. All of the kits I bought say ferment for 2 weeks then bottle. Then condition 2 weeks in the bottle. (one exception being a pumpkin spice ale that required 8 weeks in primary). That being said, my blonde ales seem to like the 2 weeks just fine but the cream ale didnt really reach its prime until 3 weeks. This I ...


1

You will want to dry-hop at normal/fermentation temps for the best hop oil extraction. Dry-hopping cold is going to be an inefficient use of precious hops. If you're worried about (or better: experience via experiment) low bottle carbonation/refermentation, you can always pitch new yeast during bottling. Some highly-flocculant strains might be ...


1

You should have enough yeast still in solution after cold crashing before you bottle. You should not have any issues with this much time. If you were to wait a few months then I would worry. If you do cold crash in the bottle there will be some increased sediment but if you are careful when you pour no a problem If you are going to dry hop in your ...


1

You were methodical about the important aspects in your write-up, and nothing looks suspect there. And since you primed with carbonation drops, that would rule-out non-uniform distribution of bottling sugar. And you later said: we sampled each other's glasses, and agreed that mine was much better than his So it goes beyond carbonation. Yes, less ...


1

It could very well be due to fermentation problems. Read this...it has tests that can help you diagnose the problem. http://byo.com/stories/article/indices/35-head-retention/697-getting-good-beer-foam-techniques Also, if it's an extract batch, keep in mind that extract beers generally have less foam. Foam is produced by protein and a lot of protein gets ...


1

Yeah, I would say effectively "no" or at least not significantly (which isn't really different from djs' answer). Bottle conditioning is the same for various beer types, including beers that fermented at radically different temps (lager and saison, for example), so fermentation temps that have a huge impact on flavor do not carry over to bottle conditioning; ...


1

The three major factors that affect shelf life are sanitation, oxidation, and storage conditions. Make sure everything is sanitized post-boil. If you need to touch a hose, wash your hands with anti-bacterial soap, etc. Fermenters, bottles, racking canes, tubing, caps -- everything should be sanitized immediately prior to use. A minor infection might not ...



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