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I use what would be my 20 min, flavor addition. My usual hop schedule is FWH, 60 min., and flameout and/or dry hop. I count the bitterness from FWH the same as a 20 min. addition because that's what it tastes like to me.


It it dry or liquid malt extract? Dry malt extract will dissolve into the water, leading to a minimal volume change, whereas liquid malt extract still has a substantial portion of water, and will have somewhat like the volume change you describe, though I don't believe it's quite 1:1. In short, your boil volume should be the boil volume. With dry extract, ...


The temperature is most critical for isomerisation of the alpha acids. 100C for 90 min results in the maximal conversion of alpha acids; The Handbook of Brewing 2nd Ed p209. The vigor of the boil is not a major factor. The book goes on to say that breweries operating at high altitude can struggle to get good isomerisation rates. Depending on the malt and ...

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