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The core question is … Why? Different ions lead to different perceived properties in the finished beer; for one example: higher concentrations of chloride emphasize malt character, whereas higher concentrations of sulfate emphasize hop character and dryness. When? Both in the mash and in the sparge water, mostly based on the ratio in volume, with some ...


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Whether or not they're really necessary depends on the water you have and the beer you want to brew. You need to start by getting an analysis of your water. Some water districts provide all the info you need, but many of them don't. If not, an excellent resource is wardlab.com. Get test W-6. As the what the info means and how you need to adjust your ...


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Brewing is a lot like cooking. You can't often try ingredients in isolation - you wouldn't normally eat pure salt, pepper, chili, vinegar etc... the taste would be far more potent than it would normally be. But combined with some other ingredients (meat, fish, tomatoes etc..), they become wonderful with something else to play off. The same is true with ...


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I think the most important thing you need to accomplish is understanding your brewery. Begin by taking notes. Record the temperature every time you take it throughout the mash. But be sure that the temperature is uniform by stirring thoroughly, this can and will be a frustration for you. Over time, you'll have a better idea for how much temperature you'll ...


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"Continuously" is overkill, "Periodically" is more reasonable. In my experience there are many variables: the insulation of the mash tun and the ambient temperature are the most influential. I used to mash in a round 10-gallon cooler. When the ambient temperature was warm (70F+), and the mash volume was sufficiently large (4-5 gallons+), I found that the ...


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Based on my experience, yes. Or rather, YES! You'd think that, with sufficient paddling, a uniform temperature should stay fairly uniform. I haven't found that to be the case. I'd hit (e.g.) the protein rest, stir the crap out of the mash, check and recheck the temp, and when I came back 10 or 15 minutes later it would be 10 degrees hotter in the middle, ...


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I generally agree with most of the recommendations, but I would shy away from a lot of the hops choices, especially Fuggles. It has an earthy, woody flavor that could conflict. I'd recommend a small bittering addition using a very neutral hop like Magnum with no other hops. Also, if you just want to learn the flavor of grains, it's easy to make a tea with ...


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You will want to use a neutral yeast and ferment at the lower end of the temperature range for that yeast. Probably the best bet is WLP001, Wyeast 1056 or Safale US-05. These yeasts all contribute minimal phenols and esters, and allow grain and hops to shine. For hops, I would suggest a noble variety, such as saaz, tettnang, or Fuggles. Use only a ...


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Pick a style of beer that is balanced more toward malt than hops -- a highly hopped IPA is going to hide a lot of the malt flavor. Something like an ordinary or special Bitter, Scottish ales, blond ale, or many of the lagers will give much more malt flavor. American Ale yeast (Wyeast 1056, White Labs WLP001) tend to be very neutral, as do some of the ...


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It's simply a different technique. Batch sparging (filling up the mash tun and then draining) versus fly sparging (dripping water while simultaneously draining) is a long standing debate where folks like our own Denny Conn will side with batch sparging, while others will take the side of fly sparging. They both generally yield very similar efficiencies, so ...



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