H2O - dihydrogen oxide, hydrogen hydroxide. Comprises over 90% of most beers. Termed "liquor" when used in the brewing process.

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How long must water be boiled to remove temporary hardness (bicarbonates)

From Papazian's Joy of Homebrewing: In the US temporary hardness is determined by a measure of bicarbonates [2(HCO3)].The hardness that bicarbonate ions contribute is temporary because it is ...