Roasted and kilned malts are often used to lower the pH of the mash. Which chemicals are created by the roasting process that have such a low pH?
I just moved to a new state, and brewed a dark beer recipe that I'm fond of-- a weizenbock. However, I believe my water chemistry may have been different enough from my previous location to have ...
I always use RO water to brew. I have never checked mash PH but have become concerned since my brews have come out darker than predicted by BrewSmith. I thought (I read in How to Brew by Palmer) ...
I normally do a single mash so I only take one ph reading and adjust the ph with some lactic acid to get within my target range. now I want to do a brew with step mashing where I need to add hot water ...