Many beers can be brewed this fast. Lower gravity beers and beers that don't need any sort of aging are good bets. Cloning Black Tuesday will take a little longer than 2 weeks.
Adding more yeast during the fermentation will help speed up the process. When I've had to push a beer through quickly in the past, I've added Safale 05 a few days into the fermentation. It doesn't add much flavor past whatever yeast you use originally, and will kick things up a notch.
One thing that will significantly speed up the process is a kegging system. If you force carbonate the beer, you can skip that whole 10 day bottle conditioned part.