Here is a link to an overview of sugars in beer
I have brewed with multiple sugars before but never maple and I'm not certain what golden syrup is. Honey is a very common ingredient. In my uses it leaves a mild honey flavor but ferments out almost completely. I've used brown sugar and it adds a sweetness but I personally feel the raw demerara sugar leaves a richer brown sugar taste. And Belgian candi sugar is also nice in a brew. Something I think you'll have to try to understand the flavor.
All the sugars you mention will leave some noticible flavor to your beer however what's more important when looking for new sugars is the type of sugar you are using. Each type of sugar such as dextrose, lactose, sucrose etc. Has vastly differently affects on yeast. For instance milk sugar or lactose can't be processed by yeast to the sweetness lingers in you beer after fermentation.
When you used table sugar you were using sucrose where normal malts are dextrose. I believe you can boil down sucrose to fructose to do other things. But the yeast didn't eat it up the same way it can eat up malt which I why you got strange flavors.
The main takeaway here is when using a new sugar find out the type of sugar and how it is used . Once you get that down it merely experimenting with flavors. As a hint try a pound of light Belgian candi sugar in an IPA you wont be disappointed. Good luck!